Week 2 Fetal and Neurologic Injury (everything) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2 Fetal and Neurologic Injury (everything) Deck (66)
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1

The brain continuously evolves during development (egg to death) but it is susceptible to subtle changes in the

internal and external milieu

2

Neurologic injury is most dynamic during what period of fetal life/growth?

Perinatal period

3

detection and diagnosis of fetal and neonatal brain injury have been advanced by:

functional imaging and the identification of potential biochemical markers

4

What mediators play an important role in the pathophysiology of fetal brain injury?

inflammatory mediators

5

maternal administration of ___ before preterm birth reduces the risk of what?

-magnesium sulfate
- cerebral palsy

6

Induced hypothermia is beneficial for the treatment of (neonatal)

hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

7

rodent and primate data suggest that fetal exposure to anesthetic agents may have harmful effects on

neurogenesis and synapse development in the developing brain.

8

**What are the three major events that appear critical to the establishment of functional synapses:

**
1. Neuronal proliferation
2. migration
3. cellular differentiation

9

**Neurogenesis beings with

neural stem/progenitor cells in neurogenic niches such as:
-subventricular and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus

10

**Neurogenesis is a term that encompasses both

Neuronal proliferation and subsequent survival

(begins w/neural stem/progenitor cells in neurogenic niches such as the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus.

11

Neural progenitor cells undergo ____ to generate immature neurons to "laminate the cortex"

Mitosis

12

Immature neurons are generated during :

Mitosis

13

**Interneurons compose what % of the total neuronal cells in the brain?

10-15%

14

Interneurons originate from the

ganglionic eminences in the developing brain

15

**The two Neurotransmitters important for fetal brain development:

GABA and Glutamate

16

*Neurogenesis starts at ____ weeks gestation

5 weeks

17

*Neurogenesis peaks at ___ weeks gestation

25 weeks

18

*Neuronal migration is completed between how many weeks gestation:

30-36 weeks

19

Synapse formation begins as early as

10 wks and continues to increase gradually at a rate of ~ 4%/week until the end of second trimester

20

A robust increase in synapse formation (40,000 synapses/min) occurs bw :

28wks and term gestation

21

Neurogenesis and synapse formation occur in conjunction w/the onset of

myelination

-- result in a 5-fold increase in brain volume and appearance of mature brain features such as sulci and gyri

22

***By 24 wks the fetus has all the neural machinery necessary to

perceive pain **

23

B/c at 24 wks the fetus can perceive pain, many clinicians recommend

appropriate measures should be taken to provide fetal analgesia during fetal surgical procedures from this pt onward

24

Among the NT's, which remains the most widely studied?

GABA

25

How does GABA action compare in the mature brain vs the developing fetal brain?

GABA has an inhibitory action in the mature brain.

GABA serves an EXCITATORY role during fetal brain development.

26

The major mechanism for the GABA role reversal (mature vs fetal brain) is differential expression of

Chloride ion transporters (NKCC1 and KCC2)

27

the chloride ion transporters increase

intracellular concentration of Chloride in developing neurons.

28

Stimulated GABA receptors in neural progenitor cells and immature neurons, chloride ions cause

membrane DEPOLARIZATION rather than the HYPERPOLARIZATION seen in mature neurons.

29

** The depolarizing effect of GABA decreases

DNA synthesis

30

** The depolarizing effect of GABA inhibits

proliferation of neural progenitor cells