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Flashcards in Exam I (supplement 2) Deck (30)
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1

What is biodiversity and what are the three kinds? is it useful? what are the other categories?

biodiversity: complete range of species and biological communities, as well as the genetic variation within species and all ecosystems processes.
-species diversity
-genetic diversity
-ecosystem diversity

useful: yes, gives more accurate representation of biological diversity within a region, community or population.
-example: ecosystem diversity vs. functional diversity = the role a species plays in a system

other categories
-ecological diversity
-trophic diversity

2

Taxonomy

-science of classifying living things
-goal is to create a system of classifications that reflects the evolution of groups of species from their ancestors
-make sense of biodiversity

3

Nested hierarchy and relatedness of organisms

species->genus->family->order->class->phylum->kingdom

relatedness of organisms: the more characteristics that organisms share, the more related they are. exclusion and inclusion

4

Binomial nomenclature and problems with it

system of nomenclature in which two terms are used to denote a species of living organism, the first one indicating the genus and the second the specific epithet

problems: if a species has no close relatives, it may be the only species in its genus. a genus that is unrelated to any other genera may form its own family.

5

What is a species? (three definitions)

1. a groups of individuals that is morphologically, physiologically, or biochemically distinct from other groups in some important characteristic (morphological definition)
2. a group of individuals that can potentially breed among themselves (reproductive isolation) int he wild and that do not bred with individuals of other groups (biological definition)
3. a group of individuals that share unique similarities of their DNA and hence their evolutionary past (evolutionary definition)

6

Subspecies

refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species' global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics

infraspecies category: identifiable and distinct geographical region

7

Phenotype

the morphological, physiological, anatomical and biochemical characteristics of the individual that results from the expression of its genotype in a particular environment

8

Genotype

the particular combination of alleles that any individual possesses

9

Heterozygous

individuals who receive the same allele of the gene from each parent

10

Pleiotropy

single gene affects multiple traits

11

Polygeny

single trait is affected by multiple genes

12

Gene flow

individuals that occasionally move from one population to another, resulting in the transfer of new alleles and genetic combinations bt populations

13

Evolution

genetic change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations, as a result of natural selection

14

Population

all organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding

15

Community

the species that occupy a particular locality and the interaction among those species

16

Ecosystem

a biological community together with its associated physical and chemical environment

17

Biome

large naturally occuring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat

18

Keystone species

particular species or group of species with similar ecological features that may determine the ability of large numbers of other species to persist in the community

19

Carrying capacity

the number that the resources of an ecosystem can support

20

Succession

the gradual process of change over time in species composition, community structure, soil chemistry, nd microclimatic characteristics that occur following natural and human-caused disturbance in an ecosystem

21

Symbioses

interactions between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both

22

Guilds

species at the same trophic level that use approximately the same environmental resources

23

Ecological community organization

1. primary producers-photosynthetic species
2. primary consumers-herbivores
3. secondary consumers-carnivores or predators (omnivores)
4. decomposers-detritivores
5. disease causing organisms

24

Food chain

specific feeding relationships

25

Food web

when species are linked together through complex feeding relationships

26

Top-down forces

focuses on interactions at top level consumers (predators) and their prey influence on lower trophic forms

27

Bottom-up forces

concentrates attention on how resources (space nutrients) influence higher trophic forms

28

Alpha biodiversity

the number of species in a certain community or designated area, "mean" species per region

29

Gamma biodiversity

refers to the number of species in a large region or on a continent

-allows us to compare large areas that encompass diverse landscapes or wide geographical areas

30

Beta biodiversity

represents the rate of change of species composition along an environmental or geographical gradient

-gamma divided by alpha