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Flashcards in Genes to Behavior Deck (62)
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1

Phenotype

- determines specific characteristic
- cannot be transmitted to following generations
-influenced by genotype
- determined by the properties of the proteins in its cells and the properties of the proteins are determined by its amino acids

2

Genotype

- genetic constitution of an individual organism
- it gives rise to phenotype (one way street) and next generation genotype

3

Role of proteins

- responsible for shape and structure of cells
- form connecting tissues
- control the many chemical reactions that a body needs to function : hormones, enzymes, antibodies

4

Proteins are made up of amino acids. What are their properties?

- 20 different types of amino acids
- properties of amino acids are determined by which amino acids are incorporated and in what order

5

Role of genes

they encode amino acids recipes for a particular protein
-> sequence of DNA bases that determines trait

6

Logic of Life

genes ( sequences of DNA bases) make up proteins ( sequence of amino acids) -> formation of bodies

7

Classical Genetics

1 particles of inheritance (genes) passed on from parents to offspring determine phenotypic characteristics
2 genes often come in alternate forms (=alleles) -> gene codes for general characteristic colour and two allele for white and red
3 individuals have two copies of the same gene (one from each parent) -> diploid organisms

8

How many chromosomes do human have?

23 pairs of chromosomes ; 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosome ( xx and xy)

9

Nirtrogenous bases

adenine - thymine ( 2 hydrogen bonds)
cytosine - guanine ( 3 hydrogen bonds)

10

Nucleoside

base + sugar

11

Nucleotide

base + backbone

12

Polynucleotide strand

- meaning that each strand is made up of many small individual units called nuceotides
antiparallel -> subunits run in opposite directions
5' = phosphate group
to
3'= OH group of sugar

13

Codons

triplets of bases (64) which code for the 20 amino acids that make up enzymes and proteins

14

central dogma

characteristics of phenotypes themselves are not transmitted to next generation
- genes affect properties of proteins but proteins do not affect properties of genes
-> flow of information is one way
example : huge muscles that developed throughout training are not transmitted to next generation ( training causes changes in phenotype and not in genotype)

15

Silent carriers

genotypic characteristics of parents that are not observable in their own phenotypes but show up in their offsprings

16

somatic cells ( most cells)
-> making more phenotypes

- carry full copy of genome
- make more genotypes through mitosis ( 2 cells are created that are identical to the first cell)
-diploid

example : cells in skin and heart produce other cells in skin and heart but are not capable for producing neurons ornew human being

17

Germ cells / Gameters
-> making more genotypes

- carry only half of genome
- make more genotypes through meiosis ( reduction from diploid to haploid cells)
- haploid cells
example : sperm in males and egg cells in females

18

( Mutations ) - Substitution

Replacement of one nucleotide pair with another

19

genetic code

mapping from particular codons in the mRNA to particular amino acids
code means for example whenever sequence of bases CGU is encountered on mRNA an arginine molecule A is added to protein chain

characteristics of genetic code
(1) universal and not random
(2) degenerates and regenerates
(3) not ambigious

20

codon AUG

codes for methionine
-> initates process of translation

21

codon UAG, UGA, UAA

indicate end of protein has been reached -> terminate translation

22

significant properties of a codon

1 Error reading third base -> Transition
often makes no differnece to amino acid produced
= no difference ; synonymous substitution
-> interchange of two-ring-purines or one ring pyrimidine

2 Transversion - codons differing by just the first base tend to produce amino acids that are chemically similiar to each other
-> interchange of purine for pyrimidine


= robustness to errors

23

chemical bonds -> within each strand

covalent bonds
extremely strong
-> if two strand are caused to split apart each strand will maintain its integrity

24

chemical bonds -> between two strands

hydrogen bonds
weaker than covalent bonds
-> principle of base pairing

25

Differential Gene Expression

- difference between cells is not due to presence but due to expression ( all cells have same genome)

26

Epigenetics

study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence.

1 on DNA Level example : methylation ; the addition of a methyl group, or a "chemical cap," to part of the DNA molecule, which prevents certain genes from being expressed

2 On Histone Level
Methylation
Acetylation
Deacytelation

27

polygenic gene (characteristic)

difference in phenotype is determined by multiple genes example is height

28

single gene (characteristic)

differneces in phenotype determined by which allele the individual has at just ONE genetic locus (=spot on chromosome) -> mendelian disease

29

backbone

sugar and phosphate
- run down on each side of the helix; chemically in opposite directions

30

What is 5' AGGTCCG 3' ?

3' TCCAGGC 5'
-> you can use one base sequence predict the counterpart