Flashcards in HaDPop Deck (467)
What are the two approaches to the concept of causality?
Deterministic and Stochastic
What does the deterministic approach measure?
How does the deterministic approach of causality validate the hypothesis?
By systematic observations to predict with certainty future events
What does the stochastic approach measure?
How does the stochastic approach to causality assess the hypothesis?
By systematic observations to give the likelihood of future events
Based on the stochastic approach, does a significant association mean causality exists?
What is population-based risk?
How individuals infer their personal risk
What do population-based observational studies do?
Investigate the causes of disease
What is the purpose of population based interventions?
They treat and prevent disease
What is the purpose of population based intervention trials?
They evaluate drugs and interventions
Where is critical appraisal of evidence necessary?
To decide about causality
How useful is laboratory bases evidence in determining causality?
It is contributory, but neither necessary not sufficient
What can population based evidence give?
Association, but not causality
Where are the ‘universal’ sources of information?
- Birth registration
- Death registration
- Population census
How often is the population census done?
Every 10 years
What is a census?
The simultaneous recording of demographic data by the government at a particular time, pertaining to all the persons who live in a particular territory
What does the census describe?
Both households and people
Who runs the census?
What is the incentive to complete the census?
It is mandatory by law, and failure to complete is punishable by fine or imprisonment
What does the census cover?
A defined area at one time
Who fills out the census?
Personal enumeration, or a person in each household completes the census form
On what timescale is the census performed through a defined area?
What does the census provide?
What information can be obtained from the census?
What can the population size be used for?
Measurements of rates
Why is it important to know the population structure?
To service needs
Give an example of population characteristics the government may need to know
Measures of deprivation
Give 5 measures of deprivation
- Lone pensioners
- Single parents
- Lack of basic amenities
What influences a population size?