HaDPop Flashcards Preview

ESA 1- HaDPop > HaDPop > Flashcards

Flashcards in HaDPop Deck (467)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the two approaches to the concept of causality?

Deterministic and Stochastic

2

What does the deterministic approach measure?

#NAME?

3

How does the deterministic approach of causality validate the hypothesis?

By systematic observations to predict with certainty future events

4

What does the stochastic approach measure?

#NAME?

5

How does the stochastic approach to causality assess the hypothesis?

By systematic observations to give the likelihood of future events

6

Based on the stochastic approach, does a significant association mean causality exists?

No

7

What is population-based risk?

How individuals infer their personal risk

8

What do population-based observational studies do?

Investigate the causes of disease

9

What is the purpose of population based interventions?

They treat and prevent disease

10

What is the purpose of population based intervention trials?

They evaluate drugs and interventions

11

Where is critical appraisal of evidence necessary?

To decide about causality

12

How useful is laboratory bases evidence in determining causality?

It is contributory, but neither necessary not sufficient

13

What can population based evidence give?

Association, but not causality

14

Where are the ‘universal’ sources of information?

- Birth registration
- Death registration 
- Population census

15

How often is the population census done?

Every 10 years

16

What is a census?

The simultaneous recording of demographic data by the government at a particular time, pertaining to all the persons who live in a particular territory

17

What does the census describe?

Both households and people

18

Who runs the census?

The government

19

What is the incentive to complete the census?

It is mandatory by law, and failure to complete is punishable by fine or imprisonment

20

What does the census cover?

A defined area at one time

21

Who fills out the census?

Personal enumeration, or a person in each household completes the census form

22

On what timescale is the census performed through a defined area?

Simultaneously

23

What does the census provide?

Universal coverage

24

What information can be obtained from the census?

#NAME?

25

What can the population size be used for?

Measurements of rates

26

Why is it important to know the population structure?

To service needs

27

Give an example of population characteristics the government may need to know

Measures of deprivation

28

Give 5 measures of deprivation

- Unemployment 
- Overcrowding 
- Lone pensioners 
- Single parents
- Lack of basic amenities

29

What influences a population size?

- Births 
- Deaths 
- Migration

30

Who provides birth notification?

An attendant at birth, usually the midwife