Head and neck Flashcards Preview

PPE > Head and neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head and neck Deck (149)
Loading flashcards...

State the borders of the anterior and posterior triagles of the neck

-Anterior triangle -> ant=midline, post =ant SCM, sup=mandible, floor=vertebrae
-Posterior triangle-> ant=post SCM, post=ant trapezius, inf=clavicle, floor=scalene


State the contents of the anterior and posterior triangles

-Ant = carotid sheath (CCA, IJV, CNX), CNXII, submandibular, thyroid and parathyroid, lymph nodes
-Post = CNXI, subclavian a, EJV, brachial plexus trunks, lymph nodes


Where does the CCA bifurcate?



What are the advantages of the neck being separated by fascial planes?

-Allows ease of movements of individual compartments, limits infection


Describe the hyoid bone, state its functions and describe the muscles associated with it.

-Horseshoe shaped bone situated at c3 anchored by strap muscles. Elevates and depresses the larynx in order to aid swallowing
-Elevation by suprahyoid muscles -> digastric, stylohyoid, mylohyoid and geniohyoid
-Depression by infrahyoid muscles -> omohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternohyoid and sternothyroid


Name the layers of the neck

-Superficial fascia
-Deep Cervical fascia
-Pretracheal fascia
-Carotid sheaths
-Prevertebral fascia


What lies within the deep fascia of the neck?

-Submandibular gland
-Parotid glands


State the layers of the pretracheal fascia and what is contained within this layer. Why is it beneficial that these structures are separated?

-Muscular and visceral layers
-Trachea, oesophagus, thyroid and infrahyoid muscles
-Allow independant movement during swallowing


What are superficial infections like cellulitis limited to the superficial space?

-Cannot cross deep investing fascia


What is the retropharyngeal space? Why is there a danger space within here?

-Area between pretracheal fascia and paravertebral fascia
-Split into two by alar fascia which joins carotid sheath
-Behind alar fascia lies danger space which connects to diaphragm and therefore would allow infections to spread into the thorax


Why would a parapharyngeal abscess be potentially life threatening?

-Could compress the carotid sheath and lead to IVC thrombosis


State the muscles of facial expression, the nerve which innervate them (and its branches), which pharyngeal arch its related to and state 2 diseases which can affect these muscles

-Frontalis, orbicularis oculi, orblicularis oris, zygomatic mj and mn, buccinator
-CNVII (temporal, zygoatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical)
-PhA 2
-Stroke and Bells palsy


State the muscles of mastication, the nerve which innervate them, which pharyngeal arch its related to

-Massater, Temporalis, med and lateral pterygoids


What are the branches of the ECA?

-Superior thyroid
-Ascending pharyngeal
-Posterior auricular
-Superior temporal


Name the branches of trigem and state their functions

-Opthalmic ->sensory to forehead, upper eyelids and dorsum of nose
-Maxillary -> sensory to cheeks, wings of nose, upper lip/teeth,hard palate and sinuses
-Mandibular -> sensory to temple, mandible, lower lip/teeth, motor to MoM


What is the most common cause of non-traumatic facial palsy? How does facial palsy present?

-Inflammation of CNVII near exit through stylomastoid foramen
-Total unilateral facial paralysis including forehead, inability to close eyelid, loss of integrity of oral cavity


Describe the pharyngeal arch system

-5 external buldges which have a mesenchymal core, ectodermal covering and endodermal lining
-In between each arch exteriorly there is a pharyngeal cleft and interiorly there is a pharyngeal pouch
-Undergo extensive modification to become embryonic head and neck
-Each arch as an associated artery, nerve and cartilage bar


State the borders of the sections of the pharynx

-Naso = Back of nasal cavity to soft palate in line with C1
-Oro = soft palate to epiglottis in line with c2/3
-Laryngo = epiglottis to inferior border of cricoid cartilage in line with c3-c6


Briefly describe the formation of the neural tube. What disease occurs when there is defects in neural tube formation?

-The notochord signals to overlying ectoderm to become neuroectoderm. Neuroectoderm thickens and the edges elevate out of the neural plate and curl towards each other. Fuse to form the neural tube.
-Expanstion of the cranial end produces 3 vesicles named proencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon which become the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain respectively.


Where is the facial skeleton derived from?

-Frontonasal prominences and neural crest of PhA1


Describe the derivatives of the 1st pharayngeal arch (artery, nerve, muscles, cartilage, cleft and pouch)

-Artery regresses, nerve is CNV, muscles of mastication, cartilage is meckels and produces the mandible, malleous and incus, cleft forms external auditory meatus and pouch forms middle ear cavity and eustachian tube


Describe the derivatives of the 2nd pharayngeal arch (artery, nerve, muscles, cartilage, cleft and pouch)

-Artery regresses
-Muscles of facial expression
-Reicherts cartilage -> Stapes, styloid process, lessercornu and upper body of hyoid bone
-Cleft -> obliterated by growth of 2PA
-Pouch -> Palatine tonsil


Describe the derivatives of the 3rd pharayngeal arch (artery, nerve, muscles, cartilage, cleft and pouch)

-Artery becomes internal carotid
-Nerve -> glossopharyngeal
-Muscles -> stylopharyngeus
-Cartilage -> greater cornu and lower body of hyoid bone
-Cleft -> Obliterated by growth of 2nd arch
-Pouch -> Thymus and parathyroid gland


Describe the derivatives of the 4th and 6th pharayngeal arch (artery, nerve, muscles, cartilage, cleft and pouch)

-4th artery = L Arch of aorta, Right Brachiocephalic
-6th artery -> pulmonary trunk
-Nerve -> Vagus
-Muscles -> Intrinsic muscles of the larynx and epiglottis
-Cartilage -> Thyroid, artynoid and cricoid cartilage
-Cleft -> obliterated by the growth of the 2nd PA
-Pouch -> 4th contributes to parathyroid gland


Describe the function of CNIX

-Innervates stylopharyngeus and provides special sensation to posterior 1/3 tongue
-Provides sensation to external and middle ear,pharynx, tonsils and soft palate
-Carotid bodies and carotid sinus
-Parasymp to parotid (lesser petrosal nerve)


Describe the course of the vertebral arteries

-Arise from the base of the L and R subclavian and ascend through transverse foramina of C1-6 and unite to form basilar artery


Which vessels anastamose to form the circle of willis?

-Basilar and ICA


Which vessels arise from the base of the subclavian?

-Vertebral, thyrocervical trunk and internal thoracic


Give the branches of the thyrocervical trunk

-Ascending and transverse cervical
-Inferior thyroid


What is the carotid sinus and carotid body?

-Sinus is a swelling at bifurcation which has baroreceptors for bp
-Body is separate to artery and has peripheral chemoreceptors