Flashcards in Hospital Acquired Infections Deck (21)
Define the following:
Interferes with growth and reproduction of a microbe
Commonly used to describe agents that reduce or eliminate harmful bacteria
Type of antimicrobial that is used as medicine for humans and animals
What is a health-care associated infection?
Infections that occur after exposure to healthcare Infection starts >48 hours after admission to hospital
Why do health-care associated infections cost money to the healthcare system?
They increase the length of stay at hospital
List some medical interventions that can increase the risk of infection.
Lines (e.g. central venous lines)
State some other factors that increase the risk of infection in the hospital setting.
Dissemination by healthcare staff
Concentration of ill patients
What are the ESCAPE pathogens?
ESC are Gram-positive
APE are Gram-negative
What is the main problem with the escape pathogens?
They are antibiotic resistant
What is the most frequent cause of bacteraemia by a Gram-negative bacterium?
What does E. coli frequently cause?
Which antibiotics is E. coli resistant to in many countries?
Which antibiotics is E. coli still sensitive to?
State the target proteins and the method of resistance to the following classes of antibiotics:
Target: Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)
Resistance: Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)
Resistance: Carbapenemase enzymes
Resistance: alternative target (PBP2A), which has low affinity for methicillin and can function in its presence
Target: peptidoglycan precursor
Resistance: synthesis of a different peptidoglycan precursor
What is ESBL encoded on?
What are carbapenemases encoded on?
What types of infections does Klebsiella pneumoniae tend to cause?
Which group of patients are at risk of Klebsiella infection?
Which classes of antibiotics are Klebsiella widely resistant to?
Cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides
Carbapenem resistance in the US
Which group of patients are at risk of P. aeruginosa infection?
Which class of antibiotics is P. aeruginosa widely resistant to?
What is the most important cause of antimicrobial resistant infection in the world?