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LSS 1 - CVS - Laz > Hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (12)
1

What is the threshold for hypertension?

140/90 mm Hg

2

How does blood pressure change with age?


Systolic increases fairly linearly
Diastolic plateaus and then decreases
The difference between systolic and diastolic increases

3

What is the difference between primary and secondary hypertension? Which one is more common?


Primary/Essential Hypertension - has no known cause (95% of all hypertension)
Secondary Hypertension - has an underlying cause

4

Give some examples of secondary hypertension.


Renal Artery Stenosis
Conn's Syndrome (inappropriate secretion of aldosterone)
Pheochromocytoma (tumour of the adrenal medulla causing increased production of catecholamines)
Oral Contraceptive Pill
Liddle's Syndrome

5

Give some lifestyle risk factors of hypertension.

Obesity, Smoking, Alcohol, Salt Intake

6

What part of the CO = MABP/TPR equation is most affected in hypertension?

There is an increase in TPR caused by decreased arterial compliance
Normal cardiac output
Normal blood volume

7

State three causes of an increase in TPR.

Active narrowing of arteries - vasoconstriction
Structural narrowing of arteries - due to remodelling
Loss of capillaries

8


What organ has a major influence on hypertension?

Kidneys - hypertension is strongly associated with impaired renal flow and blood flow

9


What is congestive heart failure?

The inability of the heart to adequately pump blood at normal filling pressures.

10

What can hypertension do to large arteries?


Arterial hypertrophy
Promote atherosclerosis
Aneurysms - thrombosis and haemorrhage

11

What does hypertension do to the microvasculature?

Hypertension causes a decrease in capillary density and a subsequent elevation of capillary blood pressure

12

What becomes present in the urine in hypertensive people?

The kidneys are a target for damage due to hypertension. It leads to renal dysfunction leading to the presence of albumin in the urine (microalbuminuria). The concentration of albumin in the urine is proportional to the systolic blood pressure.