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Flashcards in Identifying some basic disturbances of rhythm Deck (30)
1

What heart rate is considered bradycardia and tachycardia?


Bradycardia = < 60 bpm
Tachycardia = > 100 bpm

2

What is the difference between segments and intervals?

Segments are isoelectric regions between two waveforms.
Interval is the time between the start of one wave and the start of the next.

3

What is the sweep speed of ECG?

25 mm/s

4

How wide is a small square and a large square and what time interval does that represent?

Small Square = 0.04 s (1 mm)
Large Square = 0.2 s (5 mm)

5

What's the duration and amplitude of a normal P wave?


Duration = < 0.11 s
Amplitude = < 2.5 mm

6

What is the duration of a normal PR interval?

0.12 - 0.2 s

7

What is the duration and amplitude of a normal QRS complex?

Duration = < 0.12 s
Amplitude = < 25 mm

8


What is the normal range for the cardiac axis?

-30 to + 90

9


What is the duration and amplitude of a normal Q wave?


Duration = < 0.04 s
Amplitude = < 25% of the total QRS complex

10

What is the duration of a normal QT interval?

0.38-0.42

11

What does a QRS complex with a large amplitude indicate?


Ventricular Hypertrophy

12

What are the ECG features of sinus tachycardia?

Normal waveforms
Abnormally fast resting heart rate
Atrial and Ventricular Rate = 200 bpm

13

What are the ECG features of atrial fibrillation? Include atrial rate and ventricular rate in your answer.

ABSENT P WAVES (may get an oscillating baseline)
Irregular ventricular rhythm (duration between QRS varies)
Could be high or normal ventricular rate
QRS complexes are normal
Atrial Rate = 350-600 bpm
Ventricular rate = 100-180 bpm

14


What are the ECG features of atrial flutter?

SAW-TOOTHED BASE LINE
No isoelectric line - shows constant atrial activity
Regular ventricular rhythm - one in every few atrial depolarisations will get conducted down to the ventricles
QRS normal + regular ventricular rhythm
Atrial Rate = 250-350 bpm
Ventricular Rate = 150 bpm (with 2:1)
4:1 is also common

15



How is atrial fibrillation different to atrial flutter?


Atrial flutter has a regular ventricular rhythm

16

What is atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia?


When a local circuit is created within the AV node

17

What is atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia?

Local circuit is within the atria and the ventricles

18


What are the ECG features of AVNRT and AVRT?


Lots of QRS complexes
No clear P wave
QRS complexes are RAPID and IRREGULAR
You get simultaneous depolarisation of the atria and ventricles so you get instantaneous P wave and QRS complexes

19

What happens in AVNRT?


Depolarisation is rotating within the AV node
Then it re-enters and causes simultaneous atrial and ventricular contraction

20

What is preexcitation syndrome and what is a defining feature of the ECG?

Defining Feature = DELTA WAVES
Some people are born with a congenital connection between the atria and the ventricles called an ACCESSORY PATHWAY
This allows early depolarisation of the ventricles leading to slurring of the QRS complexes
This gives an abnormally short PR interval

21


What syndrome causes preexcitation syndrome?

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

22

What is the treatment to remove the accessory pathway?

Radio frequency ablation

23

What are the three types of atrioventricular nodal block and how do they vary?


Broad QRS complexes that are VOID OF ANY PATTERN

1st degree = prolonged PR interval
2nd degree (Mobitz type 1 and type 2) = some conduction gets there but it's slow
3rd degree = complete heart block

24

What is an ECG feature of grade 1 AVN block?

Prolonged PR interval

25

What is the difference between Mobitz type 1 and Mobitz type 2 atrioventricular nodal block?


2nd degree block = some of the beats from the atria do NOT reach the ventricles
Mobitz type I = gradual prolongation of the PR interval culminating in a dropped beat
Mobitz type II = fixed PR interval and then a dropped beat (you do NOT see gradually prolonging of the PR interval)

26

What is the ECG feature of 3rd degree atrioventricular nodal block?



There is NO conduction from atria to ventricles
ECG shows COMPLETE DISSOCIATION between QRS complexes and P waves
Ventricles fire on their own as a protective mechanism

27

What is the main ECG feature of bundle branch blocks?

QRS complex WIDENS
It takes longer to depolarise the ventricles

28

How do you distinguish between RBBB and LBBB?


WilliaM MarroW
RBBB = V1 + V2 = rabbit ears
LBBB = V1 + V2 = deep S waves

29

What are the ECG features of ventricular tachyarrhythmia?

Rapid, regular, broad QRS complex pattern

30

What are the ECG features of ventricular fibrillation?

Broad QRS complexes that are VOID OF ANY PATTERN