Flashcards in Infections in Childhood Deck (45)
What are the features of mumps?
Parotitis - may start unilateral and become bilateral
Which viral infection of childhood is associated with arthritis as a complication?
What is 'German Measles'?
How does rubella present if it is acquired in childhood?
Prodromal illness - low grade fever
Rash which starts on face and spreads over body
Lymphadenopathy - posterior auricular and occipital nodes
What is the incubation period of rubella?
For which childhood viral infection are Koplik's spots pathognomonic?
Measles - although these are sometimes hard to see
What is a very rare, late (from 7 years after initial infection) complication of measles, and how does it present?
Subacute sclerosing pan encephalitis - Presents with loss of neurological function which progresses over many years, leading to dementia and death
What is the incubation period of measles? How long is a child infectious for?
5-14 days (average about 10 days)...Infectious until about Day 5 of the rash
Give some clinical features of measles
Maculopapular rash late in the illness (starts from the ears and spreads downwards, covering entire body)
Encephalitis - rare
What are Koplik's spots and when are they seen?
White spot on buccal mucosa which are pathognomonic of measles infection although they can be difficult to see on the mucosa
What is the treatment for measles?
Isolate infected children if in hospital
Prevention with vaccination
Which age-group are most commonly affected by measles?
Which virus causes glandular fever?
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
By what name(s) is erythema infectiosum also known?
Slapped cheek disease
Which virus causes erythema infectiosum?
What are the features of erythema infectiosum?
Malar rash ('slapped cheek' appearance), spreading to limbs
What are the complications of erythema infectiosum?
Aplastic crisis - the virus suppresses bone marrow
Complications in pregnancy - Hydrops fetalis and fetal death
Describe the progression of the rash in chickenpox
Macules, then papules, then vesicles, then pustules, then crusts
What are the 2 common features of chickenpox?
Rash which follows a particular progression
True / False: Vaccination against VZV is given to everyone in the UK
False - There is a vaccination available but it is not routinely given in the UK
Which virus causes hand, foot and mouth disease?
Coxackie A16 virus
What are the features of hand, foot and mouth disease
The child is mildly unwell, perhaps with fever
Vesicles appear on palms, soles and in mouth
There may be associated sore throat
Treatment is symptomatic
Which organism causes 95% of UTIs in children
How might a child / infant with a UTI present?
What are the guidelines for when to investigate of UTI in infants / children?
Single, uncomplicated UTI in infant/child over 6 months = No investigation required
- Any UTI in infant under 6 months old
- 2 or more UTIs in infant/children over 6 months old
What should always be considered in an infant / child with an unexplained fever?
UTI - Often presents with non-specific symptoms
What is the investigation(s) of choice for UTI in infants and children?
Ultrasound scan within 6/52: Typical UTI in infant / child under 6 months old, recurrent UTI in children over 6 months old
DMSA: All infants and children under 3 yrs old if atypical or recurrent UTIs
MCUG: Infants under 6 months with atypical / recurrent UTI
Acute ultrasound scan: All infants and children if atypical UTI
What is an MCUG?
Micturating cystogram - Aims to detect vesicoureteric reflux in under 6/12 olds
What is a DMSA?
A radio-isotope scan which clearly visualises the renal anatomy and looks for any scarring which may have been caused by recurrent UTIs