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Flashcards in Infections in Childhood Deck (45)
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1

What are the features of mumps?

Prodromal malaise
Fever
Parotitis - may start unilateral and become bilateral

2

Which viral infection of childhood is associated with arthritis as a complication?

Rubella

3

What is 'German Measles'?

Rubella

4

How does rubella present if it is acquired in childhood?

Prodromal illness - low grade fever
Rash which starts on face and spreads over body
Lymphadenopathy - posterior auricular and occipital nodes

5

What is the incubation period of rubella?

2-3 weeks

6

For which childhood viral infection are Koplik's spots pathognomonic?

Measles - although these are sometimes hard to see

7

What is a very rare, late (from 7 years after initial infection) complication of measles, and how does it present?

Subacute sclerosing pan encephalitis - Presents with loss of neurological function which progresses over many years, leading to dementia and death

8

What is the incubation period of measles? How long is a child infectious for?

5-14 days (average about 10 days)...Infectious until about Day 5 of the rash

9

Give some clinical features of measles

Prodromal illness
Coryza, cough
Conjunctivitis
Koplik's spots
Maculopapular rash late in the illness (starts from the ears and spreads downwards, covering entire body)
Encephalitis - rare

10

What are Koplik's spots and when are they seen?

White spot on buccal mucosa which are pathognomonic of measles infection although they can be difficult to see on the mucosa

11

What is the treatment for measles?

Symptomatic
Isolate infected children if in hospital
Prevention with vaccination

12

Which age-group are most commonly affected by measles?

Age 5-10

13

Which virus causes glandular fever?

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

14

By what name(s) is erythema infectiosum also known?

'Fifth' disease
Slapped cheek disease

15

Which virus causes erythema infectiosum?

Parvovirus B19

16

What are the features of erythema infectiosum?

Fever, lethargy
Malar rash ('slapped cheek' appearance), spreading to limbs

17

What are the complications of erythema infectiosum?

Aplastic crisis - the virus suppresses bone marrow
Complications in pregnancy - Hydrops fetalis and fetal death

18

Describe the progression of the rash in chickenpox

Macules, then papules, then vesicles, then pustules, then crusts

19

What are the 2 common features of chickenpox?

Fever
Rash which follows a particular progression

20

True / False: Vaccination against VZV is given to everyone in the UK

False - There is a vaccination available but it is not routinely given in the UK

21

Which virus causes hand, foot and mouth disease?

Coxackie A16 virus

22

What are the features of hand, foot and mouth disease

The child is mildly unwell, perhaps with fever
Vesicles appear on palms, soles and in mouth
There may be associated sore throat
Treatment is symptomatic

23

Which organism causes 95% of UTIs in children

E. coli

24

How might a child / infant with a UTI present?

Non-specific illness!!
Fever
Irritability
Poor feeding
Vomiting

25

What are the guidelines for when to investigate of UTI in infants / children?

Single, uncomplicated UTI in infant/child over 6 months = No investigation required
Investigate if:
- Any UTI in infant under 6 months old
- 2 or more UTIs in infant/children over 6 months old

26

What should always be considered in an infant / child with an unexplained fever?

UTI - Often presents with non-specific symptoms

27

What is the investigation(s) of choice for UTI in infants and children?

Ultrasound scan within 6/52: Typical UTI in infant / child under 6 months old, recurrent UTI in children over 6 months old
DMSA: All infants and children under 3 yrs old if atypical or recurrent UTIs
MCUG: Infants under 6 months with atypical / recurrent UTI
Acute ultrasound scan: All infants and children if atypical UTI

28

What is an MCUG?

Micturating cystogram - Aims to detect vesicoureteric reflux in under 6/12 olds

29

What is a DMSA?

A radio-isotope scan which clearly visualises the renal anatomy and looks for any scarring which may have been caused by recurrent UTIs

30

Give some examples of enteroviruses

Coxackie virus A and B
Poliovirus
Echovirus