Intro to Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Endocrinology Deck (81)
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1

5 primary hormones from hypothalamus

TRH
CRH
GnRH
Somatostatin
Dopamine

2

7 hormones of anterior pituitary gland

TSH
FSH
LH
ACTH
MSH
Growth hormone
Prolactin

3

2 hormones of posterior pituitary

ADH
Oxytocin

4

2-3 hormones from thyroid gland

T3, T4
Calcitonin

5

What gland releases PTH

Parathyroid gland

6

2 hormones from pancreas

Insulin
Glucagon

7

2 hormones from adrenal medulla

Norepinephrine
Epinephrine

8

2 hormones from kidney

Renin
1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol

9

3 hormoens from adrenal cortex

Cortisol
Aldosterone
Adrenal androgens

10

Hormones from testes vs. ovaries

Testes = testosterone

Ovaries = estradiol, progesterone

11

2 hormones from corpus luteum

Estradiol
Progesterone

12

4 hormones from placenta

hCG
Estriol
Progesterone
hPL

13

3 general classes of hormones

Proteins + peptides

Amines

Steroids

14

Protein and peptide hormones are stored in ____ ____ until needed

Polypeptides with > 100 aa are considered _____

Polypeptides with <100 aa are considered _____

They are _____-soluble

Secretory vesicles

Proteins

Peptides

Water

15

Amine hormones are derived from _____

Tyrosine

16

Steroid hormones are synthesized from ______, they are ______-soluble and they are not stored

Cholesterol; lipid

17

Describe general synthesis of protein and peptide hormones

Usually synthesized as larger polypeptides, starting as a preprohormone (not biologically active)

Signal peptide is removed in ER to produce prohormone

Once packed into vesicles in golgi, they are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes generating the active form

18

Protein and peptide hormones are stored in secretory vesicles until endocrine cell is stimulated.

What are some possible stimuli for exocytosis?

Increased IC calcium d/t membrane depolarization

Activation of GPCR, followed by increased cAMP and activation of PKA

19

What are some glands that secrete steroid hormones?

Adrenal cortex

Gonads

Corpus luteum

20

What are some modifications that can be made to cholesterol molecules to change their hormone identity?

Removal or addition of side chains

Hydroxylation of steroid nucleus

Aromatization of steroid nucleus

21

What are the 2 possible sources of cholesterol?

About 80% is taken up as LDL particles through receptor-mediated endocytosis

The rest is de novo synthesis from acetyl coA

22

What is the difference between genomic and nongenomic actions of steroid hormones?

Genomic = modulate transcription by interaction with intracellular nuclear receptors

Nongenomic = rapid steroid action via specific receptor-mediated actions or direct steroid membrane interactions

23

Amine hormones are derived from tyrosine. What are the 2 groups of amine hormones?

Catecholamines

Thyroid hormones

24

Catecholamines are amine hormones synthesized in the _____ and secretory granules. They act through ________ associated receptors

Cytosol; cell-membrane

25

Thyroid hormones are synthesized by the thyroid gland and stored as ____ in glandular follicles

They cross the cell membrane and act through ____ receptors

Thyroglobulin

Nuclear

26

Which of the following has a faster metabolic clearance from the body, and thus a shorter half life:

Thyroxine vs. triiodothyronine

Triiodothyronine

27

Which of the following has a faster metabolic clearance from the body, and thus a shorter half life:

Cortisol
Testosterone
Aldosterone

Aldosterone > testosterone > cortisol

28

Which of the following has a faster metabolic clearance from the body, and thus a shorter half life:

Thyrotropin
Insulin
ADH

Insulin > ADH > thyrotropin

29

Peptide hormone from hypothalamus that stimulates secretion of TSH and prolactin

TRH

30

Peptide hormone from hypothalamus that stimulates secretion of ACTH

CRH