Introduction to dermatology Flashcards Preview

Dermatology > Introduction to dermatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to dermatology Deck (36)
1

What does adnexa mean?

Adnexa - the appendages of an organ

2

What are the 3 main layers of the skin?

Epidermis
Dermis
Hypodermis

3

What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?

o Stratum corneum
o Stratum lucidum
o Stratum granulosum
o Stratum spinosum
o Stratum basale

4

What are the 3 hair stages in the hair growth cycle?

Anagen
– Active growing phase
– 80-90% of hairs

Catagen
– 2–3 week phase growth stops/follicle shrinks
– 1–3% of hairs

Telogen
– Resting phase for 1–4 months
– Up to 10% of hairs in a normal scalp

5

What % of hair is in anagen?

80-90%

6

What % of hair is in catagen?

1-3%

7

What % of hair is in telogen?

10%

8

What are the 6 functions of the skin?

Thermoregulation - Insulation, Heat transfer

Skin immune system - Innate and Adaptive functions

Barrier - Protects against Mechanical, Chemical, microorganisms, Ultraviolet light. Keeps in water and Electrolytes, Macromolecules

Sensation - Temperature, touch and pain

Vitamin D synthesis - UV light converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholecalciferol

Interpersonal Communication - Physical appearance, smell, self -identity

9

What % of the population have skin disease?

22-30%

10

Why is skin disease so important?

5 Ds

• Disfigurement
• Discomfort
• Disability
• Depression
• Death

11

What are the two classes of causative agents for skin disease?

External
– Temperature, UV, chemical (allergen or irritant), infection, trauma

Internal
– Systemic disease, genetics, drugs, infection, AI disease

12

What is dermatitis artefacta?

Self inflicted skin lesions

13

What is a macule?

Macule - small (<5mm) circumscribed area (area of discolouration)

14

What is a patch?

Patch - larger (>5mm) circumscribed area (area of discolouration)

15

What is a papule?

Papule - small (<5mm) raised area

16

What is a plaque?

Plaque - larger (>5mm) raised area

17

What is a nodule?

A nodule is a large circumscribed swelling within the surface of the skin

18

What is a tumour?

The term tumour also means swelling similar to a nodule, but has acquired the specific implication of a growth of new cells, either benign or malignant

19

What is a vesicle?

Vesicle - small (<5mm) fluid filled lesion

20

What is a bulla?

Bulla - large (>5mm) fluid filled lesion

21

What is a pustule?

Pustule - small (<5mm) pus filled lesion

22

What is an abscess?

Abscess - large (>5mm) pus filled lesion

23

Define erosion

Loss of epidermis

24

Define ulcer

Loss of epidermis and dermis

25

Describe urticaria

Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps. They may also burn or sting.

26

Describe bullous pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid is an acute or chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters, more appropriately known as bullae, at the space between the epidermis and dermis skin layers. It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of anti-hemidesmosome antibodies

27

Describe Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV), also known as hypersensitivity vasculitis and hypersensitivity angiitis, is a histopathologic term commonly used to denote a small-vessel vasculitis

28

List some skin diseases associated with hypersensitivity reactions

Bullous pemphigoid
Leukocytoclastic vasculitis

29

What conditions can be aided in diagnosis by cutaneous signs?

o Erythema Nodosum
o Sarcoidosis
o Vasculitis
o Malignancy
o Auto-immune conditions

30

What condition can be suspected if eruptive xanthoma is seen on the skin?

Hyperlipidaemia

31

What conditions can be linked to Acanthosis Nigricans?

Insulin resistance
Obesity
Malignancy

32

Describe pretibial myxoedema and what diseases it might be seen in

Pretibial myxedema is an infiltrative dermopathy, resulting as a rare complication of Graves' disease

33

What investigations would be carried out if a bacterial infection of the skin is suspected?

Charcoal swab

Ask for MC&S
• Microscopy
• Culture
• Sensitivities

34

What investigations would be carried out if a viral infection of the skin is suspected?

o Viral swab for PCR
o Can swab vesicle/bulla if vesicular eruption
o If systemic illness, can take throat swab

35

What investigations would be carried out if a fungal infection of the skin is suspected?

o Skin scraping
o Nail clipping
o Hair sample
o Fungal cultures

36

How are skin biopsies taken?

Punch biopsy