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Flashcards in Key Associations, USMLE Deck (134):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated w/ CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (incr. intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated w/ severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

5

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, arch

Tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destuction

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated w/ gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus/E. coli (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in 1st two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder w/ GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum( or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac primary tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both side of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, Primary mixoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")

24

Cerebellar tonsilar herniation

Chiari II malformation

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated w/ high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hpotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world); SLE (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD > RCA > LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

35

Cushing syndrome

Iatrogenic Cushing (from corticosteroid therapy);

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

41

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

42

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

43

Dietary deficit

Iron

44

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

45

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

46

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (US)

47

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

48

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

49

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in US); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

50

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

51

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse

52

Helminth infections (US)

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

53

Hematoma - epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

54

Hematoma - subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

55

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and incr. risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

56

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated w/ hepatitis B and C and w/ alcoholism)

57

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

58

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

59

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis

60

HLA-DR3 or -DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

61

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

62

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow triad (results in venous thrombosis)

63

Hypertension, secondary

Renal disease

64

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66

Infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

67

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase+)

68

Intellectual disability

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

69

Kidney stones

Calcium = radiopaque

70

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

71

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

72

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher disease

73

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

74

Malignancy associated w/ noninfectious fever

Hodgkin lymphoma

75

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

76

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

77

Metastases to brain

Lung > breast > GU > melanoma > GI

78

Metastases to liver

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

79

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

80

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

81

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

82

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

83

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

85

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

86

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

87

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

88

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

89

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystic jirovecii pneumonia

90

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

91

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

92

Osteomyelitis in IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

93

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

94

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

95

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

96

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

97

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

98

Patient w/ ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child, CLL: adults >60, AML: adult ~65, CML: adult 30-60

99

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

100

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)

CML (may sometimes be associated w/ ALL/AML)

101

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotrophic "acidophilic" adenoma

102

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

103

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

104

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

105

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

106

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, a1-antitrypsin deficiency)

107

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

108

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremitis

Buerger disease (strongly associated w/ tobacco)

109

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated w/ von Hippel Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

110

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

111

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

Incr. ventricular filling (left-to-right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

112

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

113

Secondary parathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

114

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfected w/ gonorrhea)

115

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

116

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

117

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

118

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

119

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

120

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphoma (bcl-2 activation)

121

t(8;14)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation)

122

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

123

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

124

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

125

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

126

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

127

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

128

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

129

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

130

Type of Hodgkin

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

131

Type of non-Hodgkin

Diffuse large cell

132

UTI

E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

133

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

134

Vitamin deficiency (US)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3-4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)