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1

statistical population

the entire set of data of interest (i.e., the weights of all of the mice)

2

the entire set of data of interest (i.e., the weights of all of the mice)

statistical population

3

statistical sample

the measured portion, or subset, of the population

4

the measured portion, or subset, of the population

statistical sample

5

biological population

the aggregation of individual organisms of a single species inhabiting a given area

6

the aggregation of individual organisms of a single species inhabiting a given area

biological population

7

entire set of data about which one wishes to draw conclusions

statistical population

8

an entire set of measurements from a habitat, a community, a biological population, or a portion of a biological population

statistical population

9

a portion of a larger set of data

statistical sample

10

physical sample

a portion, or subset, of a collection of one or more material objects, either biotic or abiotic

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a portion, or subset, of a collection of one or more material objects, either biotic or abiotic

physical sample

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an example of a physical sample

taking 1 - liter sample of pond water

13

refers to a collection of data such as measurements of the temperature or phosphate content of pond water

statistical sample

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when are sampling procedures biased

some members of the population are more likely to be recorded than others, or if the recording of some affects the recording of others

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a single value could have an uncomfortably high probability of being far from the typical or average value. Therefore...

a series of replicated measures should be taken

16

species-sample curve

cumulative number of species is plotted against the cumulative number of physical samples, where each sample might be a plot

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cumulative number of species is plotted against the cumulative number of physical samples, where each sample might be a plot

species-sample curve

18

species-area curve

cumulative number of species is plotted against the cumulative size of the area sampled

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cumulative number of species is plotted against the cumulative size of the area sampled

species-area curve

20

performance curve

examines the mean value of a set of measurements for an ecological variable

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examines the mean value of a set of measurements for an ecological variable

performance curve

22

example of performance curve

the mean density or biomass for a given species plotted as a function of the cumulative number of samples or cumulative area sampled

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plots a cumulative mean of some variable instead of the cumulative number of species

performance curve

24

subsamples

portions of samples taken in the field later examined in the lab

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must be randomly taken from the sample (shaking, mixing, or blending sample) to reflect characteristics of entire sample

subsample

26

experimental design

the planning of field/lab studies

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details with the questions to be asked in a study, the selection of variabls to be studied, and the choice of a sampling program.

experimental design

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most commonly used experimental design

two-sample comparison

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two-sample comparison

one selects two situations in which all conditions but one are equal (or nearly equal)

30

Statistical methods

allow an ecologist to engage in three very important activities:
1. quantitatively describing/summarizing characteristics of sets of data
2. drawing conclusions about large sets of data
3. objectively assessing differences and relationships between sets of data