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Flashcards in Lecture 15 Deck (16)
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1

Types of marine pollution

Sewage
Pesticides
Heavy metals
Radioactive waste
Thermal pollution
Oil
Plastics
Noise
Invasive species

2

Example of large oil spill in ocean

Deepwater horizon, 2010
Gulf of Mexico
4.9 million barrels

3

What forms of oil pollution are more common than big oil spills seen on the news?

Natural seeps
Up in smoke
Down the drain
Routine maintenance

4

Variables determining the scale of impact of oil spills into the environment?

-Volume of the spill
-Speed of the spill
-Inshore or offshore (cost of shoreline clean up 5x more)
-Dispersant use (can suppress oil-degrading microorganisms)
-Sea conditions and currents
-Habitats present (rock, sand)

5

Impact of oil on organisms

-Oil floats so organisms that pass through air-water interface most affected
-Ingestion
-Accumulation of contaminants in tissues
-DNA damage
-Immune function
-Mass mortality of pelagic eggs/larvae
-Loss of buoyancy/insulation
-Recovery rates depend on habitat and species

6

What size is a micro plastic?

Less than 5mm

7

What areas do micro plastics accumulate in?

In coastal areas where a great number of people live

8

What causes the release of microplastics?

Degradation of large plastic
Direct release e.g. through cosmetic products
Laundry

9

What are the effects of microplastics?

1. Energy reserves: decreased feeding activity, increased phagocytosis, fewer egestion, reduced energy reserves
2. Pollution transfer: PVC absorbs pollutants, and these pollutants accumulate in tissues when ingested by organisms
3. Effects on reproduction: decreased oocyte production, decreased sperm velocity, lower larval production and growth, shifts in gene expression

10

What are causes of marine noise?

Boat noise
Military activity (anti-submarine measures, loud short pulses of sound)
Seismic surveys (oil and gas exploration)
Construction noise (e.g. pile driving for wind farms)

11

How are right whales affected by boat noise?

Increased stress levels with more boat traffic

12

How can noise pollution kill fish?

Ambon damselfish (prey) cannot hear dusky dottyback (predator) over noise so increased predation
Greatly reduced survivorship of newly settled fry on patch reefs
More oxygen depletion, less likely to startle when predator present and slower response times

13

Examples of invasive species

Lion fish (Pterois sp.)
European shire crab
Caulerpa taxifola
Sea walnut
Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

14

What is the method by which the most invasive species are introduced?

Through shipping (via ballast water)

15

Spread of lionfish

Rapid spread throughout the Caribbean from aquaria
Extremely predatory
Pterois volitans and Pterois miles

16

What predicts invasion success?

Species with high genetic structure (low movement) are bad invaders