Localisation, blood supply, pain and temp. pathways Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Localisation, blood supply, pain and temp. pathways Deck (30):
1

name of swellings seen on neural tube 4 wpc

3 swellings
presencephalon/ forebrain
mesencephalon/ midbrain
rhombencephalon/ hindbrain

2

swellings seen on neural tube 5 wpc
and what they develop into in the mature brain

5 swellings

prosencephalon divides into telencephalon (cerebral hemisphere) and diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus etc)

mesencephalon (midbrain)

rhombencephalon divides into the metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) and mylencephalon (medulla)

3

there are 31 spinal nerves, 4 main segments plus 1 coccygeal nerve. what are others

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 saccral

4

anatomical features on VENTRAL view of brainstem

midbrain= cerebral peduncles (bundles of WHITE matter which connect the midbrain to rest of brain)

medulla= olives and pyramids

cranial nerves (except 1,2,4)

5

anatomical features of DORSAL view of brainstem

cranial nerve 4

midbrain= superior and inferior colliculi

medulla= open and closed medulla

6

the 4 divisions of the diencephalon/ inner brain are....

thalamus - all grey matter (bundles of nuclei), relay station between parts of CNS

hypothalamus- all grey matter, autonomic and neuro-endocrine functions

epithalamus- pineal gland, melatonin

subthalamus -involved in motor control, not seen in mid-sagittal view

7

functions of frontal/ motor cortex

controls movements

regulates emotions

8

functions of parietal/ sensory cortex

processes sensory information

understanding language

spatial orientation

9

functions of temporal/ auditory cortex

processes auditory information

regulates emotions

10

occipital/visual cortex

processes visual information

11

primary projection areas: sensory pathways terminate ...

general sensory pathways terminate in post-central gyrus

visual sensory pathways terminate around the calcarine sulcus of occipital lobe

auditory sensory pathways terminate in the heschl's gyrus

12

primary protection areas: motor pathways descend from..

the pre-central gyrus, also called the primary motor cortex

13

association areas:
where are secondary sensory areas which will interpret the information from the primary sensory areas

general sensory= on the superior parietal lobe

visual secondary sensory areas are in the pre-striate cortex

auditory= lateral fissure and superior temporal gyrus

14

association areas: where are secondary motor areas which will organise the PATTERN of movements

pre-motor cortex is anterior to the pre-central sulcus on lateral surface

supplementary motor area= anterior to the pre-central sulcus on medial surface

frontal eye field (co-ordinates eye movement) = anterior to pre-motor area

15

which foramina do the 2 arteries supplying brain enter the skull through

vertebral artery = enters via the foramen magnum

carotid artery= enters via the carotid canals

16

3 pairs of cerebral arteries are...

MCA, ACA, PCA

17

3 pairs of cerebellar arteries are...

SCA, AICA, PICA

18

what regions specifically of the cerebrum do the 3 cerebral arteries supply

ACA= superior and medial areas of the frontal/ parietal lobes AND corpus callosum

MCA= lateral areas of the frontal/temporal/ parietal lobes

PCA= inferior and medial surface of temporal lobe AND the occipital lobe

19

striate arteries are a type of perforating artery which supply

deep structures inside the hemisphere:
- deep nuclei
-deep grey mater
-internal capsule
-major descending motor pathway

20

difference between the dura of spinal cord and brain

in brain there is no fluid between the dura mater layers
in spinal cord, the dura is separated from the bony wall of vertebra by EPIDURAL SPACE which is occupied by FAT

21

CN3 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

oculomotor
between the cerebral peduncles in the midbrain

22

CN5 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

trigeminal
lateral aspect of pons

23

CN6 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

abducens
junction between the pons and medulla
CLOSEST to midline

24

CN7 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

facial
junction between pons and medulla
lateral to CN6

25

CN8 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

vestibucochlear
junction between pons and medulla
lateral to 7

26

CN9 is___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

glossopharyngeal
emerges from medulla, directly inferior to the CN8

27

CN10 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

vagus
emerges from medulla, directly inferior and slightly lateral to CN9

28

CN11 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

accessory
emerges from medulla (it is very long)
inferior and slightly lateral to CN10

29

CN12 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

hypoglossal
emerges from junction between the pyramid and olive structures of medulla

30

CN4 is ___ and emerges from ___ on the brainstem

trochlear nerve
emerges from the DORSAL aspect of the MIDBRAIN
arises from below the inferior colliculi