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1

Biodiversity

All the diversity that encompasses everything from genes, species, the functions of organisms and their interrelations, and the diversity among ecosystems.

2

Ecosystem services

The benefits that humans derive from a healthy ecosystem including clean drinking water, protection from floods, carbon sequestration, recreation, and food.

3

Economic reasons

This is really a subset of ecosystem services, but is more monetized. It includes all resources that are sold in an economy that are extracted from nature, including timber, animal products, drugs and medicines, and anything that can be sold.

4

Scientific discovery and knowledge

The more biodiversity there is, the more things there are to discover and explore to satisfy our natural curiosity, and the more benefits we might gain from these things in the future.

5

Cultural reasons

Biodiversity and nature are often tied up in how we view ourselves culturally and nationally. Indigenous cultures especially rely upon and have a deep connection to nature that cannot be separated from their sense of self.

6

Ethical reasons

Many people feel a moral responsibility and sense of custodianship to the planet to not only look after it but to minimize the harm we inflict upon it.

7

Aesthetic reasons

The sense that nature is beautiful and that it should be preserved or conserved for other people to enjoy.

8

Ecosystem

Community of living organisms in conjunction with the non-living components of their environment, interacting as a system.

9

What needs to be done in order to maximally protect biodiversity?

Conserve species, ecosystems and the interactions between ecosystems.

10

Factors of priority

In practice, we cannot save everything, so we need to prioritize. This may depend upon factors such as cost, the probability of success, and the importance of ecosystem/species.

11

What selective pressures resulted in the increase in our brain size?

Sociality, a variable environment, and the need to rely on feeding strategies that involved hunting and coordination.

12

Evolution of our species

200,000 years ago in Africa.

13

Hunting gathering

Predominant means of subsistence for most of human history.

14

Mega fauna

Fauna with massive sizes whose extinction is partially attributed to humans.

15

Agriculture

Millstone in human history which allowed for larger groups of people to permanently settle in an area. Eventually, agricultural societies replaced most hunter gatherer societies. Led to the domestication/breeding of plants and animals.

16

Industrial revolution

Trend towards urbanization caused by increase in industrial work.

17

Green evolution

Set of technology and management transfers that were put into place from the 1930s to the 1960s in which the yield of agriculture was greatly increased. However, there has also been a decrease in crop diversity.

18

Shannon-Weiner Index

H= -SUM[pi x ln(pi)]
pi= proportion of individuals relative to total population

19

Evenness

E= H/Hmax
H= SW value
Hmax= Ln(total number of pop.)

20

Simpson index

D= 1-(SUM[ni*(ni-1)] / (N*(N-1)))
ni= number of individuals of a species
N= total number of individuals in pop.

21

Jaccard's index

J= Sc / (Sa + Sb + Sc)
Sc= number of individuals that are common in both pops.
Sa= number of individuals unique to pop. A
Sb= number of individuals unique to pop. B

22

Allele frequency

Number of copies of a given allele / total number of allele copies in pop.

23

Genotype frequency

Number of individuals with a particular genotype / total number of individuals in pop.

24

Heterozygosity

Number of heterozygous individuals / total number of individuals in pop.

25

Homozygosity

Total number of homozygous individuals / total number of individuals in pop.

26

Allopatric speciation

Split between original population into two distinct populations that over time evolve distinctly.

27

Peripatric speciation

Associated with founder effect, segment of population becomes accidentally separated from original population.

28

Parapatric evolution

Overlap of populations in a limited part of their ranges, creating genetic flow. Difference in conditions of each population allows to species to begin to evolve.

29

Sympatric speciation

Speciation of two largely overlapping populations due to reproductive isolation.

30

Adaptive radiation

Splitting off of multiple taxa in a relative short time. For example, species of fish that speciate when a lake cyclically recedes and forms small pockets of water.