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Flashcards in MT2 Deck (45):
1

The study of how environmental factors can affect gene expression without altering the actual DNA sequence, and how these changes can be inherited through generations is called:
- the genome study
- epigenetics
- geneology
- functional genetics

epigenetics

2

T/F

Physical exercise, trauma, and psychosocial factors are all considered part of the environmental inputs that can influence the expression of health

TRUE

3

Interventions utilized in the functional healthcare paradigm are analyzed by their depth of impact. This type of intervention is used more frequently in the acute presentation of an illness.
- whole body intervention
- organ system intervention
- subcellular/mitochondrial interventions
- celluler interventions

organ system intervention

4

Exercise is an example of this depth of intervention.
- myofascial
- nervous
- lymphatic
- skeletal

lymphatic

5

The question "When was the present problem not a problem?" is searching for:
- mediators
- antecedents
- triggers
- core imbalances

triggers

6

Diet and supplementation are utilized extensively in this depth of intervention:
- cellular
- organ system
- whole body

cellular

7

T/F

Under the functional model, single conditions have multiple imbalances associated with their underlying cause

TRUE

8

T/F

7 out of 10 people who die from sports related traumatic injuries suffer from catastrophic spine injuries, along with head injuries.

TRUE

9

Neck injuries deserve special attention because of their potential to affect the _______, potentially resulting in depth or crippling permanent disability.
- cervical nerve root
- cervical spinal cord
- cervical vertebra
- upper cervical ligaments
- cervical stabilizing musculature

cervical spinal cord

10

Traumatic injuries to these spinal levels can result in diaphragmatic paralysis.
- C7, T1, T2
- C3, C4, C5
- C6, C7, T1

C3, C4, C5

11

This type of injury is typically seen in racket sports, where there is frequent explosive neck rotation and inactivities requiring prolonged neck positioning, like marksmanship.
- torticollis
- sprain/strain
- compressive fracture
- IV disc injury
- stinger/burner

sprain/strain

12

This type of injury usually occurs in contact sports and at the extremes of motion resulting in cervical pain and restriction in ROM
- compressive fracture
- sprain/strain
- SP fracture
- disc injury
- stinger/burner

compressive fracture

13

This type of imaging to assess the level of boney involvement and the need for surgical intervention when a fracture is suspected in:
- MRI
- x-ray
- CT scan
- bone scan

x-ray

14

The "gold standard" imaging techniques to assess a ligamentous injury is:
- MRI
- flexion/extension x-ray
- CT scan
- ultrasound

flexion/extension x-ray

15

A mechanism of injury for this particular condition includes: traction to the brachial plexus from ipsilateral shoulder depression and contralateral neck flexion
- disc injury
- stinger/burner
- torticollis
- spinal cord injury
- compression fracture

stinger/burner???

16

A definitive diagnosis of this injury is usually made with plain film radiographs
- sprain/strain
- stinger/burner
- SP fracture
- disc injury
- spinal cord injury

SP fracture

17

A compression fracture with greater than 50% anterior compression is an indication of instability because the ____ is often affected.
- Lig. Flava
- Nuchal Lig
- PLL
- ALL
- interspinous Lig

PLL

18

Observation of the patient spontaneously grasping their head with their hands during motion indicating instability is called _____.
- Hall-Pike sign
- Kernig's sign
- RA sign
- Rust's sign

Rust's sign

19

The brachial plexus tension test is a series of moves or positions that are used to put increasing tension into the neural tissue. The last position or movement is:
- finger extension
- shoulder abduction
- elbow extension
- cervical lateral flexion
- shoulder external rotation

cervical lateral flexion

20

The diagnostic test for benign positional vertigo involves tilting the head of a supine patient to 45 degrees and turning it to one side
- L'Hermitte's sign
- Hoffman test
- Hall-Pike Maneuver
- Kernig's sign

hell-Pike Maneuver

21

In grading a patient's strength, if they were able to perform active movement against gravity, the grade assigned would be:
- 1
- 2
- 3
- 4

3

22

Self-efficacy is a patient's perception of their _______.
- current health status
- ability to perform ADLs
- future health status
- ability to recover from injury
- movement efficiency

ability to recover from injury

23

The 4 exams that if found to be positive during an examination indicate a 90% probability that the patient is suffering from a radiculopathy include all of the following EXCEPT
- Spurling's
- shoulder depressor
- cervical rotation less than 60 degrees
- brachial plexus tension test
- cervical distraction

shoulder depressor

24

At the time of impact, the distance between the head and the head restraint is known as:
- WAD gap
- extension gap
- backset
- restraint gap

WAD gap

25

Which of the following is NOT a known risk factor for poor outcomes following whiplash injury:
- female gender
- immediate onset of pain
- sitting in rear seat
- initial onset of neurological symptoms

sitting in rear seat

26

During the initial stages of trauma in a rear impact crash, it has been found that the cervical spine forms which shape?
- C shape
- reverse C shape
- S shape
- reverse S shape

S shape

27

The NHTSA has estimated that _____ % of children are improperly restrained in motor vehicles.
- 20%
- 40%
- 60%
- 80%

80%

28

Moderate injury, limitation of motion , ligamentous injury with the possible presence of neurological findings, according to Croft would define this grade of severity
I
II
III
IV
V

II

29

Based on the research of Bogduk and others, one of the most common generators of neck pain in those suffering from the late effects of whiplash injury is:
- cervical disc
- ALL
- PLL
- facet joint
- periosteum

facet joint

30

The most common level of cervical spine degenerative changes in the general population is found at:
C2/C3
C4/C5
C5/C6
C6/C7
C3/C4

C5/C6

31

The diameter of the spinal canal changes during cervical spine motion. It is usually the smallest during ______.
- extension
- flexion
- rotation
- lateral flexion

flexion

32

T/F

Commonly, the sympathetic presentation of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy includes neck and upper limb pain

TRUE

33

T/F

The "Torg-Pavlov" ratio, whose normal value is 1.0 is obtained by dividing the AP spinal canal diameter at the mid vertebral level, by the AP diameter of the vertebral body at the same time

TRUE

34

T/F

A measured cervical spinal canal diameter of 11 millimeters of less is highly suggestive of spinal cord compression

TRUE

35

The thoracic outlet as an anatomical space created by all the following structures, EXCEPT
- clavicle
- 1st rib
- posterior scalene muscle
- subclavian muscle
- costoclavicular ligment

posterior scalene muscle

36

This classification of TOS comprises over 90% of all TOS cases
- venous
- arterial
- neurogenic
- postural
- traumatic

neurogenic

37

A differential diagnosis for TOS characterized by pain around the shoulder and upper arm, episodic acute onset and multifocal paresis.
- rotator cuff tear
- neuralgic amyotrophy
- shoulder impingement
- lower cervical facet syndrome

shoulder impingement

38

Weakness in the thenar, hypothenar with or without atrophy is considered a sign of:
- neurogenic TOS
- arterial TOS
- venous TOS
- postural TOS

neurogenic TOS

39

This type of MRI scan has been shown to be useful in identifying TOS impact on the neurovascular bundle
- T2 weighted
- positional
- T1 weighted
- 3D MRA

3D MRA

40

Most patients suffering with TOS have a:
- genetic predisposition
- myofascial imbalance
- anatomical predisposition
- vascular anomaly

myofascial imbalance

41

Professional athletes seem to be at an increased risk of contracting TOS due to hypertrophy of this muscle
- SCM
- levator scapula
- anterior scalene
- deep cervical flexors

SCM

42

All the ortho exams for possible TOS are designed to detect this type of TOS
- neurogenic
- venous
- arterial
- postural
- traumatic

neurogenic

43

Anti-inflammatory measures appear to be a useful first line approach in the acute stage when your patient is exhibiting this s/s
- dynamic instability
- neurodynamic signs
- centralization signs
- segmental pain

segmental pain

44

A patient repost to you that they have taken daily walks of 2 miles every day, until current neck pain 2 weeks ago that get worse when walking. They have stopped taking their wlks. This patient is exhibiting:
- depression
- passive coping
- dynamic instability
- centralization signs

passive coping

45

Biochemical individuality and promoting organ reserve are both parts of the _______ characterizes the functional healthcare paradigm.
- environmental inputs
- basic principles
- core imbalances
- fundamental physicology

fundamental physiology