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Explain the concept of Benedict Anderson's "imagined communities. Remember the constructivist view of the nation. How do these imagined communities emerge? Why is the nation both real and imagined in this case? Give examples.

nation = a social group existing within a state. For example, group members think of themselves as connected, most of them will never meet. the sense of national identity is imagined. Anderson this identity has been encouraged by the development of the printing press - led to books and pamphlets being printing in locally commonly spoken languages. Anderson argued that as people consumed the same media they began to perceive that they had something in common. Imagined communities suggests that nationalism is not the natural awakening of an existing nation but the invention of one.


What are the different types of nationalism?

There are five different types of nationalism: Nation-building in already created states, xenophobic nationalism in nation-states, Irredentism, national minorities seeking autonomy, and national minorities seeking independence.


How is the type of nationalism in Catalonia and the type of nationalism in Scotland similar but also different from one another? Answer this question by referring to the examples given in class (videos)

The difference between the Scotland/UK and Catalonia/Spain's independence movements is that one is recognized by the state and the other is not. The UK granted a referendum vote and even allowed a Scottish Parliament to be created, outsourcing British Parliament power to Scotland, but Catalonia was not granted a referendum vote.


Explain the type of nationalism where there is nation-building in already created states.

States develop national identities to become more legitimate (public education, invented traditions, conscription). Examples of solid states with weak nations are European states such as France, Spain, and the UK in the 19th century. Exmples of states facing large influx of immigrants are the USA, Argentina, and Canada in the late 19th century. Another example is weaker states in Africa tried to develop national identities after decolonization.


Explain the type of nationalism of xenophobic nationalism in nation-states.

Xenophobic nationalism in nation-states involves excluding foreign individuals from the territory of the state. A good example is the rise of extreme-right parties in Europe in the last twenty years.


Explain the type of nationalism of irredentism.

Irredentism is a type of nationalism that seeks to create a greater nation that exists beyond the limits of an already existing political unit. An example is a greater Serbia.


Explain the type of nationalism of national minorities seeking autonomy.

This type of nationalism seeks to reform the political system of a state to give more authority to a national minority. Example is Scotland seeking autonomy in 1998 and through devolution got its own regional parliament: Scottish Parliament.


Explain the type of nationalism of national minorities seeking independence.

This type of nationalism seeks independence for a national minority locked within another nation state. Example is Catalonia seeking independence from Spain and Scotland seeking independence from the UK.