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Flashcards in Nature of Soils Deck (13)
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1

Characteristics of soils?

mineral matter, organic matter, water and air

2

Amount of textural classes in soil texture

12

60% primarily sand
30% clay
10% silt

3

What are the 2 soil textures?

Fine Earth Fraction-Clay Silt Sand
Coarse Fraction-Gravel Cobble Stone Boulder

4

Factors that affect soil?

Permeability
Surface Area
Adsorption

5

Other characteristics of soil?

structure, organic matter, living organisms, aeration, moisture content, pH, and fertility

6

The ability of water and air to pass through soil

Permeability

7

5 major factors of soil formation responsible for the kind of soil that develops in an area, the rate, and extent

Climate, parent material, organisms, topography, and time

8

The acidity, neutrality, and alkalinity of soil reaction

pH
4.5-7 in humid regions
7-9 in arid regions
most vegetation grows in soils between 6 and 7

9

A cross section view of the various horizons characterized by a specific thickness, texture, structure, and chemical composition

Soil Profile

10

Each horizon has specific thickness, color, texture, structure and chemical composition. How many soil horizons are there?

6:
O-above topsoil
A topsoil
E-subsurface
B-subsoil
C-parent material
R-hard bedrock

11

The most dominant factor of soil formation?

Climate (temperature and precipitation which influence weathering)

12

The unconsolidated material from which solids form

Parent Material

13

Semi-stable dark colored organic material that consists of the decomposed products of plants and animal wastes and residues. Vital to healthy soil.

Humus