Neck and oral cavity Flashcards Preview

202: Theme 2, Sensory inputs and motor outputs > Neck and oral cavity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neck and oral cavity Deck (51)
1

Boundaries and functions of the oral cavity

Boundaries:
Superiorly- Nasal cavity
Inferiorly- Pharynx

Functions:
- Digestion
- Speaking [manipulation of sound from the larynx]

2

Divisions of the tongue

Oral division
- Anterior 2/3

Pharyngeal
- Posterior 1/3

Terminal sulcus divided anterior from posterior.

Papillae
- Contains taste buds
- Except filiform

3

Frenulum

Under medial fold that separates the right side from the left side of the tongue.

4

Divisions of the oral cavity

Oral vestibule
- Space between the lips and cheek

Oral cavity proper
- Space enclosed by the teeth

5

Boundaries of the oral cavity proper

Roof
- Hard and soft palate

Floor
- Mylohyoid muscle
- Geniohyoid muscle
- Tongue
- Submandibular and sublingual glands

6

Intrinsic muscles of the tongue
- Function

Longitudinal
Transverse
Vertical

Function:
- Fine movement of the tongue
- Used for speech, eating and swallowing.

7

Extrinsic muscles of the tongue [4]

Genioglossus

Hyoglossus

Styloglossus

Palatoglossus

8

Genioglossus
- Shape
- Function

Extrinsic muscle of the tongue
- Fan shaped
- Arising from the mandible

Action
- Depression
- Protrusion

9

Hyoglossus
- Shape
- Function

Extrinsic muscle of the tongue
- From hyoid bone
- Vertical fibres

Action:
Depression

10

Styloglossus
- Shape
- Function

Extrinsic muscle of the tongue arising from the styloid process
- Downwards, forward fibres

Function:
Retraction

11

Palatoglossus
- Shape
- Function

Extrinsic muscle arising from the soft palate
- downward fibres

Function:
- Elevates back of the tongue
- Depresses soft palate

12

Innervation of the oral tongue

Special afferent [TASTE]
- Chorda tympani [from CN7]
- Lingual nerve [from mandibular nerve]

General sensation
- Lingual nerve

13

Innervation of the pharyngeal division of the tongue

Special afferent [TASTE]
- Glossopharyngeal [CN9]

Sensation
- CN9

Motor
- Hypoglossal [CN12]
- CNX [palatoglossus]

14

Innervation of the muscles of the tongue

CN12
- Hypoglossus

CN10
- Vagus
- Palatoglossus ONLY

15

Venous and arterial supply to the tongue
- Source

Lingual arteries and veins
- Branch from the ECA

16

Muscles of the soft palate

Palatoglossal and Palatopharyngeal
- Form the arches

Uvula

All depress the palate

17

Hypoglossal nerve
- Type
- Exit
- Innervation

CN 12
- Exits hypoglossal canal

Gives all motor supply to the tongue
- Except palatoglossus muscle

18

Clinical test for CN12 function

Patient is asked to protrude their tongue
- A deviation to one side may indicate impairment of CN12

19

CN 9
- Name
- Exit
- Type [4}
- Innervation [5]

Glossopharyngeal
- Exits jugular foramen

Type
- Somatic sensory [oropharynx and posterior 1/3 of the tongue]
- Special afferent, taste [post. third of the tongue]
- Visceral---> parotid gland
- Motor---> Stylopharyngeus

20

Larynx
- Function
- Border

Phonation
- Sits above the trachea
- Hyoid bone superior

Sphincter for the airway, blocks objects from entering trachea

21

Larynx cartilages + their functions [6]
- I see see see Three A Es

Thyroid
- Forms Adam's apple
- Connects to hyoid bone via ligament

Cricoid
- Forms inferior wall
- Connects to thyroid cartilage

Corniculate [paired]
- Apex of arytenoid

Arytenoid [paired]
- Alters vocal chords

Cuneiform [paired]
- anterior to corniculate

Epiglottis
- Elastic
- Blocks airway from food

22

Ligaments of the larynx

Vestibular
Vocal

23

Innervation of the larynx

Vagus nerve
- Recurrent laryngeal branch [motor]
- Superior laryngeal branch [sensory]

24

Arterial supply to the larynx

Upper half
- Superior thyroid [ from external carotid}

Lower half
- Inferior thyroid [ from thyrocervical trunk]

25

Pharynx divisions
- Surrounding anatomy

Pharynx [most posterior of neck]
- Behind oral cavity and nasal cavity
- Above oesophagus and larynx

Visions
- Nasopharynx
- Oropharynx
- Laryngopharynx

26

Muscles of pharynx

Superior, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles

27

Innervation of pharynx

Motor
- CN X, Vagus
- Stylopharyngeus ---->
CN 9, Glossopharyngeal

Sensory
- CN V2 [maxillary]
- CN 9
- CN X

28

General motor supply of the vagus nerve

Palatoglossus muscle

Larynx and Pharynx muscles

29

Path of vagus nerve

Medulla--->
Jugular foramen [exit]-->
Carotid sheath --->
Head + thorax---->
Foregut and midgut

30

CN 8
- Name
- Exit
- Type
- Innervation

Vestibulocochlear
- Exits internal acoustic meatus

Sensory divisions:
- Vestibular [balance]
- Cochlear [hearing]

Special somatic afferent
- Carries information about hearing, equilibrium and motion

31

CN 11
- Name
- Exit
- Type
- Innervation

Accessory nerve
- Exits jugular foramen

Motor supply to:
- Sternocleidomastoid
- Trapezius

32

Fascias of the neck
- Clinical importance

Pretracheal

Prevertebral

Investing

Fascia reduce infection spread

Also allows structures to move past each other when the neck moves or during swallowing.

33

Carotid sheath
- Contents [6]

Fascia in the neck

Contains:
- Internal jugular vein
- Vagus nerve
- Deep cervical lymph nodes
- Carotid sinus nerve
- Common carotid
- Internal carotid

34

Bones of the neck

7 cervical vertebrae posteriorly

Hyoid bone anteriorly

35

Contents of the carotid triangle [5]

Common carotid artery

Internal jugular vein

CN 10-12

36

Boundaries of the carotid triangle [4]

Omohyoid

Stylohoid

Digastric muscle

Sternocleidomastoid muscle

37

Contents of the submandibular triangle [3]

Submandibular gland

Facial artery

Facial vein

38

Boundaries of the submandibular triangle

Anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle
- Bound it at the front and back

39

Submental triangle contents and boundaries

Contents
- Lymph nodes

Bounded by anterior belly of the digastric muscle.

40

Muscular triangle
- Contents
- Boundaries

Contains:
Supra hyoid muscle
Infra hyoid muscle.

Boundaries:
- Omohyoid
- Sternocleidomastoid

41

Anterior trinangle

Region of the neck
- Separated from the lateral triangle by the sternocleidomastoid

Contains 3 paired triangles
- Submandibular
- Submental [unpaired]
- Muscular
- Carotid

42

Suprahyoid muscles of the muscular triangle

Stylohyoid

Digastric

Mylohyoid

Geniohyoid

43

Infrahyoid muscles of the muscular triangle
+ innervation

Innervation: C1-3 of ansa cervicalis

Omohyoid

Sternohyoid

Thyrohoid

Sternothyroid

44

Innervation of stylohoid and posterior digastric

Facial nerve [CN 7]

45

Mylohyoid innervation

CN 5

46

Geniohyoid innervation

CN 12

47

Posterior/ Lateral triangle
- Boundaries of traingles

Occipital triangle
- Sternocleidomastoid
- Trapezius
- Omohyoid

Supraclavicular triangle
- Clavicular SCM
- clavicle
- omohyoid

48

Posterior/ Lateral triangle contents [5]

Subclavian artery

External jugular vein

Brachial plexus

CN 11 [accessory]

Cervical plexus

49

Arterial supply of the neck

External carotid branches:
- Superficial temporal
- Maxillary
- Facial
- Ascending pharyngeal
- Superior thyroid
- Lingual

Subclavian branch
- Inferior thyroid

50

Venous drainage of neck

Internal jugular vein
- Neck viscera
- Neck muscles

External jugular

Anterior jugular
- connects to external jugular

51

Uvula innervation

CN X