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Flashcards in Neuro extra stuff Deck (66):
1

Describe the layers of the cerebellum

VI layers then White matter.
VI to thalamus
V to subcortical
I-IV to cortex
Thalamus to IV
BS to all
Cortex to I-IV

2

Parietal dominant function?

Speech (Brocas) and language
Logic - calculation
Problem solving
Motor skills

3

Lesion in anterior frontal results in?

Loss of personality
Apathy
Asociality
Loss of social rules/ inhibition
Euphoria without feeling so
amoral

4

Temporal lesion

Memory e.g. people/ agnosias/ recognition
Speech

5

Parietal non dominant function

Emotion of language
Music/art
Visiospatial
Body awareness
Whole pucture

6

How are the left and right sides of the brain connected?

Corpus callosum and anterior and posterior commissures

7

Where does the interpretation of written and spoken word occur?

Wernicke's area temporal lobe

8

Function of the angular gyrus?

Written word interpretation from occipital to Wernicke's via angular gyrus

9

How does information pass from Wernicke's area to Brocs's?

Via the arcuate fasciculus

10

What are the types of memories and where are they stored? What feature of neurones allows this to happen?

Declarative- cortex, hippocampus and other cortical regions
Procedural - Cerebellum, basal ganglia, pre-motor cortex
neuronal plasticity

11

Storage of memory?

Intermediate = seconds allowing sense of present
Short = seconds to minutes = working memory
Transfers to long spontaneously or based on emotion, rehersal association.
Consolidation occurs via long term potentiation

12

How does memory formation occur? how do we forget?

Sensory info to sensory cortex. Then forms a loops with amygdala/ hippo/ thalamus/ basal forebrain/ pre frontal cortex and back.
Long term potentiation with NDMA glutamate receptors]

13

Result of the destruction of the hippocampus?

Antereograde amnesia

14

What is amnesia? Causes

Vascular interrution
Trauma
Infections, Vit B def
Retrograde in alzheimers

15

What is dementia

An aquires loss of global brain function that is significant enough to effect dailey function and quality of life
Loss includes intellect reason and personalit without loss in consciousness (with delerium there is)

16

Symptoms of dementia

Loss of progressive:
Memory
intellect
personality
behaviour
speech
movement (bradykinesia)

17

Causes of dementia briefly

Vascular (20%)
ALzheimers
Lewi bodies
Fronto-temporal dementia
Drugs

18

Protein and the deal with Alx

B amyoid deposition
Neurofibillary tangles
Prognosis 5 years
AGe and female = RF

19

Protein and the deal with lewi bodies

alpha synuclein
prognosis 8 years
REM bleep behaviour disorder fighting in sleep
Delusions
paranoia
Later it resembled alzheimers dementia

20

Protein and the deal with fronto-temporal dementia

T Tau
Prog = 8 years
Behaviour and personality loss
Semantic dementia (loss of meaning from language/ words)
Progressive non-fluent aphasia
Disinhibitions
lOss motivation
Lack of empathy
Repetitive
Convulsive behaviours
Craving of sweet, fatty, alcohol, ciggs
Loss of table etiquette

21

Describe early dementia

Loss of memory for recent events
Global distruption of personality
Gradual change in behaviour

22

describe intermediate dementia

Loss of intellect
Mood changes
Cognitive failure to learn

23

Describe late dementia

Reduction in self care
REstless wandering
Incontinence

24

Differentials for dementia

Delerium
Depression

25

What is normal pressure hydrocephalus and when does it occur

Symptoms = Dementia, incontinence and gait disturbance
Ventriculomegally (caused byu build up of CSF?)
Rare

26

Which layers does meningitis affect?

Leptomeninges = Pia and arachnoid

27

Causative organisms of meningitis

Neonates = Listeria Monocytogenes, E coli.
1-5 = H influenzae B (less now due to vaccine)
5-30 = N meningitidis
>30 = S pneumoniae

28

What is encephalitis

Viral infection of brain parachyma.

29

Where does herpres virus often infect? result?

Temporal lobes
Epilepsy

30

Where does polio and rabies often occur?

Rabies = BS
Polio = Spinal cord

31

What is perivascular cuffing

Aggregation of lymphocytes perivascularly in encephalitis

32

What is tomoplasmosis?

Toxoplasma gondii causes
Primary = flue, muscle aches, lymph nodes.
Later eye problems, seizures, coordination

33

How do Prions form and cause damage

Mutated proteins
Ingested proteins that then affect own proteins (post translational conformational change)
May be famililal or sporadic mutations.

Form very stable structures and aggregate and cause neuronal death- spongiform encephalopathies

34

Pressure in brain and coughing? How long can compensation occur?

0-10mmhg
coughing + 20
up to 60

35

Describe subfalcine herniation

Cingulate gyrus through falx cerebri. Ischemia of frontal and pariatal and corpus callosum

36

Describe tentorial herniatation

Uncus and parahippocampus through tentorial notch.
Damage to CN3 and occlusion of PCA and superior cerebellar arteries.
Can cause Duret haemorrhage in midbrain/pons

37

Describe tonsilar herniation

Cerebellar tonsils through foramen magnum compessing the brainstem - CVS apnoea

38

What are prodramal symptoms of raised ICP?

Intitial
Headache
VOmiting
Papilloedema

39

Acute phase of raised ICP

Pupil dilation
Coma (BS)

Possiibly hemiparesis from cerebellum

LAter = BS

40

Give examples of brain tumours

Meningioma bengin
Malignant = astrocytoma
Lymphoma
Most are mets (lung)

41

Difference between focal damage and diffuse damage in trauma

Focal = bruising and laceration- tearing of BV and contsions
Diffuse = tearing of axons as they go between tissues of varying densiities e.g. white nad gray, pit stalk (DAI) leads to gliotic scarring and persistent vegitative state

42

Types of infarct in brain?

Regional e.g. named vesssel
Lacuna - less than 1cm affected with hypertension often in basal ganglia./

43

Difference between falx cerbri and falx cerebelli?

Falx cerebelli posterior
Falx cerebri superior

44

What makes MRI better than CT?

Less radiation
Multiple planes
Free from artifacts
Higher defintion

45

Describe PET scans and their use

Maps Biochemistry
Positron emission tomography
Uses positron emitting pharamceuticles e.g. L dopa
Hypometabolic areas e.g. siezures
Dementia

46

Decribe EEG uses

Electroencephalogram
Diagnose brain death
Epilepsy to select appropriate anticonvulsants

47

Describe electrophysiological-evoked potentials and types

Stimulation of nerve pathways and monitored and compared to background EEG
VER (visual evoked response) - optic neuropathy
Auditory
Somatosensory (SER) - peripheral nerve stim (can be used in neurosurgery)

48

What is electromyography and its uses

Needle into muscle to record electrical activity e.g. fibrillation potentials = hyperexcitability following dennervation or fasciculation potentials

49

T1 and T2 MRIs and water/ fat

WW2
Water white T2
T1 = fat white

50

How is taste different from flavour?

Flavour includes smell
Taste for pattern of stimulation of different neurones

51

How does tastes vary on tongue

All areas detect all types of taste: Sweet sour, bitter, salty and umami
Deficient sweet and salt at tip
Deficient sour and bitter at back

52

Emotiona components and outputs

Fornix, mammary body, anterior nuclei of thalamus, hippocampus.
Outputs:
Autonomic
RF
Cortex
Fronto-sensory cortex (emotional behaviour)

53

What is dioptic strength and what does it depend on?

1/focal length(m)
Measures strength of lens
Length changed by intraocular pressure (300-325mmHg)

54

Production and drainae of intraocular fluid? What happens if it goes wrong?

Produced by ciliary body and absorbed by Schlemm (venous sinuses)

55

Corrections for short and long sighted

Short = myopia = concave
Long = hyperopia - convex

56

What is presbyopia?

long sighted with age
Progressive

57

Does accommodation in eye?

Ciliary muscle contracts to Increase convexity and allow nearer objects to be seen

58

What is the near point?

Closest point at which an object can be seen

59

What is visual acuity and what determines?

2 point discrim
Density and receptive fields

60

What is a pathological blind spot called?

Scotomata

61

How is colour vision tested?

Ishihara chart

62

Definition of trichonmats and dichromats

3 vs 2 cones

63

Colour deficit tyoes in trichromatis

Protanomaly red
Deutanolaly green
Tritanomaly blue

64

Loss of cones in dichromats

Protanopia red
Deutanopia green
tritanopia blue

65

Why do after images occur

Sensitises to opposite colour
See complementary colour

66

Descrube le fort fractures

1 = maxillary horizontal above teeth
2 = horizontal at nose and verical in miaxillar at orbit = separation of maxilla
3 Horizontal nose sphenoid and frontozygomatic arches/ suture