Flashcards in Nosocomial Pneumonia Deck (29):
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)
Health care associated pneumonia (HCAP)
Develops more than 48 hours after admission to the hospital
Development of pneumonia in a mechanically ventilated patient 48 hours after endotracheal intubation
Development of pneumonia in an outpatient setting in an individual with extensive health care contact
Mortailty of nosocomial pneumonia?
Risk factors for HCAP?
1. Antibiotics in the last 3 months
2. Hospitalization in the last 3 months of at least 2 days duration
3. Resident of a nursing home or extended care facility
4. Home infusion therapy within the last month
5. Long term dialysis
6. Home wound care
7. Family member with an infection involving a multiple drug resistant pathogen
8. Immunosuppression (disease or therapy)
What is different from CAP?
1. Change in normal flora
--Flora develops different resistance patterns
2. Different pathogens
3. High frequency of drug resistance
4. Patient’s have worse underlying health status
of nosocomial: Where does the bacteria colonize and why?
Colonization of the stomach and pharynx
Organisms that cause nasocomial pneumonia?
1. Streptococcus pneumonia
--Often drug resistant
2. Staphlococcus aureus
--MSSA and MRSA
3. Gram negative rods
--ESBL : Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter
4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
5. Acinetobacter species
Bugs mostly causing HAP?
Gram negative rods
Bugs mostly causing VAP?
Whats the most common?
P. aeruginosa 18%
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 7%
Acinetobacter spp 8%
HCAP Common organisms that are more likely to be?
Signs and symptoms
of noscomial pneumonia?
Same as with community acquired pneumonia but more severe
for Streptococcus pneumoniae?
Diagnostic clues Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, and pneumococcal species?
May produce green sputum
Diagnostic clues for Klebsiella species pneumonia?
Red currant-jelly sputum
Diagnostic clues for Anaerobic infections:
Often produce foul-smelling or bad-tasting sputum
Debilitated hospital pts
What group of bacteria is it part of?
What can it cause?
What is seen on the XRAy?
Gram negative member of Enerobacteriacae
Can cause extensive pulmonary necrosis
1. Cavitations seen on xray
2. Abscess formation (empyema)
3. Pleural adhesions
Rapid onset of severe symptoms
Flulike symtpoms (fever and chills)
Productive of current jelly
Klebsiella radiographic clues?
1. Extensive lobar consolidation
2. Air bronchograms
3. Bulging fissure sign
4. Cavitary lesions (gas filled space in an area of consolidation)
Treatment of Klebsiella pneumonia?
Usually extended spectrum beta-lactamase positive so resistant to B-lactam and B-lactamase inhibitors, co-resistance to all FQs and often aminoglycosides
1. GI symptoms, especially diarrhea
2. Neurologic findings, especially confusion
3. Fever >39ºC
4. Gram stain of respiratory secretions shows many neutrophils, but few, if any, microorganisms
6. Hepatic dysfunction
8. Failure to respond to beta-lactam and/or aminoglycoside antibiotics
How is legionella spread?
Not transmitted from person to person
From contaminated water supply
Macrolides or Respiratory FQ for treatment
Staphlococcus aureus pneumonia is often seen when?
What infection is seen associated with high mortality and necrotizing pneumonia?
Often seen post influenza
Can be dangerous even in young immunocomprimised questions
Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia has what kind of symtpoms?
What is the characteristic odor?
1. Cough productive of purulent sputum,
3. fever, chills,
4. confusion, and
5. severe systemic toxicity
Characteristic sweet, grape-like odor
1. Bronchiectasis (cystic fibrosis)
2. Repeated antibiotic use
3. Prolonged oral glucocorticoid use in patient’s with structural lung disease (COPD, pulmonary fibrosis)
5. Previous hospitalizations
General Treatment for Nosocomial PNA??
If you suspect Legionella add on what? 2
If you suspect MRSA?
If you suspect pseudomonas?
Imipenem or meropenem
Levofloxacin (Levaquin) or Moxifloxacin (Avelox)
1. Imipenem (Primaxin, Tienam) or
2. cefepime (Maxipime) or
3. piperacillin-tazobactam (Zosyn) + Cipro
ADD AN FQ, cipro
Prevention of nosocomial pneumonia?
1. Avoid acid-blocking medications
--Use sulcralfate instead in hospitalized patients
2. Decontamination of the oropharynx
3. Patient positioning
4. Subglottic drainage (special ETT)
5. Preventing aspiration
7. Clean equipment