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Flashcards in Problem 6 Deck (70)
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1

Operant conditioning

Refers to learning on the basis of the law effect

--> organisms "operate" on the environment in a way that causes an outcome to occur

Discriminative Stimulus S --> Response R --> Outcome O

2

Law of effect

States that behaviors followed by positives consequences are strengthened + more likely to be repeated

3

What is the main difference between operant + classical conditioning ?

1. In classical conditioning, organisms experience an outcome (US) whether they perform the CR or not

2. In operant conditioning the outcome (O) doesn't occur if the response (R) isn't performed

4

Free operant paradigm
(Skinner)

Refers to an operant conditioning paradigm in which the animal can operate the experimental apparatus "freely"

--> can respond to obtain a reinforcement when it chooses

5

Discrete trials paradigm
(Thorndike)

Refers the an operant conditioning paradigm in which the experimenter defines the beginning + end points

--> more controlled

6

Skinner box

Refers to a conditioning chamber in which lever press responses (R) while the light is switched on (S), are reinforced by the delivery of food (O)

7

Cumulative recorder

Device that records behavioral responses

--> height represents the number of responses that have been made up to the present time

8

Discriminative Stimuli (S)

Refer to stimuli that signal whether a particular response will lead to a particular outcome

ex.: light on --> food, therefore lever must be pressed;
light off --> no food

9

Shaping

Refers to training, that consists of a series of successive approximations, so that the desired response is learned

10

Response (R)

Refers to the sequence of movements needed to obtain a particular outcome

ex.: pressing a lever --> door opens (O)

11

Chaining

Organisms are gradually trained to execute complicated sequences of discrete responses

--> occurs gradually

ex.: learns A, then AB, then ABC

12

Reinforcer/
Positive outcome

Refers to a consequence of behavior that leads to an INCREASE of likelihood of that behavior in the future

ex.: food when hungry

13

Primary reinforcers

Refer to stimuli that have innate biological values to an organism

--> organisms will therefore repeat behaviors that provide access to these things

ex.: food, water, sex, sleep

14

Drive reduction theory

States that all learning reflects the innate, biological need to obtain primary reinforcers

--> one wants to reduce those drives

15

Why are primary reinforcers not always reinforcing ?

1. A reinforcer of the same category can evoke a stronger response than another (Negative contrast)

ex.: will work harder for food they like, than for the ones one doesn't like

2. Once the the reinforcer was satiating, further induction won't be reinforcing

ex.: drinking until not thirsty anymore --> no more water needed

16

Secondary reinforcers

Refer to stimuli that have no biological value but that have been paired with primary reinforcers

ex.: money --> can be exchanged for food, sex etc

17

Token economy

Refers to an environment in which tokens can be exchanged for privileges

--> function the same way as money does in the outside world
--> used to modify behavior

ex.: prison, school

18

Negative contrast

Refers to a situation in which an organism will respond less strongly to a less-preferred reinforcer that is provided in place of an expected preferred reinforcer

--> it would have responded more strongly if the less-preferred reinforcer had ben provided all along

19

Why does the identity of the reinforcer matter ?

Organisms learn that a certain response (R) will result in a PARTICULAR outcome (O)

--> a switch in the outcome may produce changes in responding

20

Punisher/
Negative outcome

Refers to a consequence of behavior that leads to DECREASE the likelihood of the behavior occurring again in the future

--> opposite to reinforcer

21

Are punishments as effective as reinforcements ?

No,

the effects of punishment are irratic + unreliable
--> can sometimes result in paradoxical increases in punished behaviour

22

Which factors determine how effective the punishment will be ?

1. Punishment might produce VARIATION IN BEHAVIOR, as the organism explores other possible responses

2. Discriminative stimuli for punishment can ENCOURAGE CHEATING

ex.: one will resume speeding, in the absence of police cars

3. CONCURRENT REINFORCEMENT can undermine punishment

ex.: one will not stop talking in class, when behavior is punished by teacher but simult. reinforced by classmates

4. Punishment is most effective if a STRONG PUNISHER is used from the beginning

--> if not, one might become insensitive later to stronger ones

23

Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors
(DRA)

Refers to a method to decrease the frequency of unwanted behaviors by instead reinforcing preferred alternate behaviors

--> works best if the rewarded behavior is compatible with the unwanted one

24

Reinforcement schedule

Refers to a schedule/rules determining how often reinforcement/outcomes is/are delivered in an experiment

25

When does learning occur the fastest ?

If there is no delay between the response + reinforcement
(Temporal congruity)

--> then the most recent behavior will be associated as a cause for the outcome

26

Self control/
Delayed gratification

Refers to an organisms willingness to forego a small immediate reward in favor of a larger future reward

27

Pre-commitment

Making a choice that is difficult to change later

--> will improve delayed gratification

28

Negative reinforcement

Behavior is reinforced because it causes something to be subtracted from the environment

ex.: headache (S) --> take aspirin (R) --> no more headache (O)

29

Positive reinforcement

Behavior is reinforced because it causes something to be added to the environment

ex.: present pot (S) --> peeing (R) --> praise (O)

30

Negative punishment

Behavior is punished by subtracting (taking away) something from the environment

ex.: Siblings --> aggressive behaviour --> grounding