Flashcards in Quick Review Deck (29)

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1

## Key components of a research question are...

###
– the associations between 2 or more variables

– the associations between exposure and disease states

– the association between an independent and dependent

variables

2

## What are the two main types of study designs?

### Observational and experimental

3

## What are the types of observational study designs?

### Cohort, cross-sectional, case-control

4

## What is the type of experimental design study?

### RCT

5

## What is a cross-sectional study

###
Observational study that involves data collection from a population, or a

representative subset, at one specific point in time

6

## What is a cohort study

###
observational study that is longitudinal and involves data collection from a group of

people over many points to examine factors related to an outcome (e.g. disease)

7

## What is a case control study

###
observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome (e,g., disease)

are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute (i.e.,

exposure)

8

## What is RCT

### Control and experimental, random sampling, discover if there is a relationship between an independent and dependent variable

9

## What is a continuous variable

###
Take on potential values within a given range

Ex: Age, Scores on an a IQ tests (100, 90, 75, 140 etc…)

– Level of depression on a depression scale (27, 32, 61 etc)

– Height in inches (60, 50, 57 etc)

– Weight in pounds (98, 198, 298 etc)

– Standing after the short program in figure skating (1, 2, 3

10

## What is a categorical variable

###
Can take on only one specific value based on

some agreed upon and clear system for assigning

the values

Ex: – Gender for the most part is assigned to each person

based on one value

• 1 female/ 0 male/ 2 transgender OR

• 0 female/ 1 male/ 2 transgender OR

• 0 transgender/ 1 female/ 2 male

11

## What are the type of categorical variables

### Ordinal, nominal

12

## What is ordinal

###
There is a clear ordering of this variable, ordering matters

Ex: Gender:

• 0 male 1 female;

– the 0 and 1 do no indicate some rank or order

– Placement in Olympic ice hockey:

• Canada 1; USA 2; Russia 3;

– Here the numbers indicate a rank

13

## What is nominal

### Categorical scale, no intrinsic ordering

14

## What are the types of scales we use to measure variables

### ordinal, nominal, interval, ratio

15

## What is an interval scale

###
There is no real 0 point in such scales; if there is

one it is arbitrary

Ex: IQ: 90, 100, 110

– The difference between 100 and 90 has the same meaning as between

100 and 110 but there is no real 0 (No 0 IQ; i.e. no IQ at all)

• Year of birth: 1992, 1997, 2002

– The difference between 1992 and 1997 is the same as 1997 and 2002 but

there in no real 0 (No 0 year; no year at all)

• Temperature: 50F, 55F, 60F

– The difference between 50 and 55 is the same as 55 and 60

Likert Scale

16

## What is a ratio scale

###
Has absolute zeroes

Ex: Height

– Length

– Weight

– Time

– Temperature on Kelvin Scale

• 0 there is no molecular movement

17

## What is p hat

### p̂, sample proportion

18

## What is mew

### μ, mean of a population

19

## What is sigma

### σ = standard deviation of a population.

20

## what is x bar

### x̅, mean of a sample

21

## what is N

### Population size

22

## what is y-intercept

### b

23

## What is degrees of freedom

### df

24

## what is frequency

### f, fancy f

25

## what is null hypothesis

### Ho

26

## What is alternative hypothesis

### H1 or Ha

27

## What is the slope of a line

### m, tells how much ŷ increases or decreases for a one-unit increase in x

28

## what is sample size

### n

29