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Flashcards in Red Cell Aplasia Deck (35)
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1

How does red cell aplasia cause anaemia?

Due to reduced or absent red cell precursors in the bone marrow

2

What are the main causes of red cell aplasia in childhood?

- Diamond-Blackfan anaemia
- Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood
- Parvovirus-induced aplastic crisis

3

What is Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA)?

A rare genetic disorder

4

At what age does DBA present?

Usually presents at birth or during infancy, but may present in fetal life and occasionally in older children

5

What is DBA associated with?

Physical abnormalities

6

What % of cases of DBA are associated with physical abnormalities?

- Craniofacial abnormalities
- Thumb abnormalities
- Growth restrictions

7

What craniofacial abnormalities are associated with DBA?

- Cleft palate
- Typical facies

8

What thumb abnormalities are associated with DBA?

- Hypoplastic
- Triphalangeal

9

What is the inheritance of DBA?

Autosomal dominant

10

In what % of cases of DBA is family history present?

10-20%

11

What mutations are involved in DBA?

Mutations in various ribosomal protein genes, the most common being RPS19

12

In what % of cases does a RPS19 mutation occur in DBA?

25%

13

What is the primary mechanism of disease in DBA?

Defective ribosomal biosynthesis, resulting in apoptosis and dysfunction in other key pathways

14

What function are ribosomes vital for?

Protein synthesis

15

What will lab tests down in DBA?

- Microcytic anaemia
- Low reticulocyte count (usually <30)
- Normal WCC
- Normal/increased platelet count
- Increased HbF
- Increased levels of eADA

16

What is eADA?

A RBC enzyme - erythrocyte adenosine deaminase

17

What is the clinical relevance of eADA?

Measurement of eADA is a useful screening test for DBA, since levels are elevated in most patients

18

What is done when DBA is suspected?

Bone marrow biopsy, which will confirm the diagnosis

19

What will be found on bone marrow biopsy in DBA?

Reduction in erythroid precursors while other cell types are unaffected

20

What else can be useful for the diagnosis of DBA?

Screening for ribosomal protein mutations

21

What treatment are most patients started on after diagnosis with DBA?

Oral prednisolone

22

What % of cases of DBA does oral prednisolone induce a response in?

70%

23

When is the commencement of steroids usually deferred until in DBA?

After initial MMR vaccination

24

What are the options for children with DBA where steroids are ineffective or intolerable?

Blood transfusions form the mainstay of treatment

25

What proportion of DBA patients are maintained on regular blood transfusions?

Around half

26

What can regular blood transfusions lead to in DBA?

Transfusional iron overload in the long term

27

What has recently become a curative option for DBA?

HSCT (haematopoietic stem cell transplantation)

28

What is the most common source of stem cells in HSCT for DBA?

Healthy sibling donor

29

What is the main differential diagnosis of DBA in neonates?

Parvovirus induced red cell aplasia

30

What is the main differential diagnosis of DBA in infants and young children?

Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood (TEC)