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Flashcards in Ridiculously Simple Deck (35)
1

Brain and spinal cord

Central nervous system

2

Peripheral nerves

Peripheral nervous system

3

frontal lobes, temporal lobes, parietal lobes, and occipital lobes

Cerebral hemisphere

4

thalamus and basal ganglia

cortical structures

5

midbrain, pons, medulla

brain stem

6

cluster of neuron cell bodies

gray matter

7

myelinated axon pathways

white matter

8

Makes myelin in the periphery

schwann cells

9

Makes myelin in the central nervous system

oligodendrocytes

10

Transmit sensory information from the head to the brain

cranial nerves

11

Transmit sensory information from the rest of the body to the brain

peripheral nerves

12

Pathway that projects from cortex to spinal cord

upper motor neurons

13

Pathway that projects from spinal cord to muscle

lower motor neurons

14

main motor pathway

corticospinal tract

15

Synapse on the anterior horn cells in the anterior spinal cord

upper motor neurons

16

Synapse on the muscle

lower motor neurons

17

What side of the body does the right motor cortex control?

Left side of body

18

What side of the body does the left motor cortex control?

Right side of body

19

Flaccid paralysis, diminished/absent reflexes, fasciculations, and muscle atrophy over time

Sx of lower motor neuron lesion

20

Spastic paralysis, increased reflexes, clonus (esp. unilateral) and disinhibition of primitive reflexes (e.g. Babinskis)

Sx of upper motor neuron lesion

21

If you stroke the bottom of the foot and the big toes curls up instead of down

Positive Babinkski's sign in adults

22

repetitive, rhythmic contraction of a muscle when it is stretched, commonly seen in the ankle

Clonus

23

Where will the motor deficit be if the lesion is above the decussation of the corticospinal tract?

Contralateral (opposite) side

24

Where will the motor deficit be if the lesion is below the decussation of the corticospinal tract?

Ipsilateral (same) side

25

Two main sensory pathways

posterior columns (or dorsal columns) and spinothalmic tracts (or anterolateral tracts)

26

Transmits discrimination touch, vibration, and proprioception

Posterior column

27

Pain and temperature sensation

spinothalmic tract

28

When so the spinothalmic tracts cross in the spinal cord?

Immediately

29

When do the posterior columns cross?

At the medulla and continue as medial lemnisci

30

isolated motor or sensory deficits typically occur with small, isolated lesions in very specific places

CNS

31

isolated motor or sensory deficits include root lesions or disease affecting the motor or sensory systems specifically

PNS

32

Doesn't project into the brainstem but into olfactory cortex

Olfactory nerve- CN I

33

Projects to the midbrain for afferent limb for pupillary light reflex and visual pathway projects to lateral genuculate nucleus of the thalamus

Optic nerve- CN II

34

Will impair motor and sensory function on the opposite side of the body and cranial nerve function on the same same of the body

brainstem lesion ABOVE the decussation in the medulla

35

Lesion of CN I (olfactory nerve) will lead to...

anosmia-loss of smell