Sacrum & Coccyx Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Test 2 > Sacrum & Coccyx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sacrum & Coccyx Deck (41):
1

What part of the sacral ala is derived from the costal element?

anterior 2/3

2

What part of the sacral ala is derived from the true transverse process?

posterior 1/3

3

How many fibrous (amphiarthorsis) symphysis joint surfaces are present on the S1 vertebral body?

four

4

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of the first sacral segment?

five

5

How many cartilagenous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are present on the S1 vertebral body?

one

6

What muscle(s) may attach to the first sacral vertebral body?

psoas major

7

What is the position of the sacral zygapophysis in adults?

lies in coronal plane for L5/S1

8

What is the orientation of the first sacral superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM);
typically concave

9

What is the name given to the projection on the first sacral superior articular facet?

mammillary process

10

What muscles will attach to the sacral mammillary processes?

multifidis

11

What is the usual condition for the first sacral spinous process?

non-bifid and short

12

An imaginary line drawn along the dorsal midline of the sacrum is identified as the ______

medial sacral crest

13

What is the name given to the congenital condition in which the fifth lumbar spinous process is elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida, and dorsiflexsion produces pain?

Knife's Clasp syndrome

14

An imaginary line drawn from the superior articular process of S1 to the sacral cornu will form what feature?

intermediate sacral crest

15

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5

16

What does the sacral cornu represent?

inferior articular process and facet of S5

17

What is the name of the inferior opening of the sacral spinal canal?

sacral hiatus

18

An imaginary line is drawn from the transverse process of S1 to the inferior lateral sacral angle will form what feature?

lateral sacral crest

19

What is the sacral tuberositiy?

enlarged transverse tubercle of S2

20

What is the name of the joint formed by the sacral tuberosity?

accessory sacro-iliac joint

21

What feature is identified on the lateral surface of S1-S3?

auricular surface

22

What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S2 form?

sacral promontory

23

The continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament below S3 form what ligament?

deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

24

What forms the posterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

sacral cornu, coccygeal cornu, superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament, intercornual ligament

25

What forms the anterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

vertebral body S5, vertebral body Co1, deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament, intervertebral disc

26

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

the union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal

27

What ligament divides the sciatic foramen into the greater and lesser sciatic foramina?

sacrospinous ligament

28

Which ligament has a broad attachment along the lateral margin of the sacrum and coccyx and then attaches to the ischial tuberosity?

sacrotuberous ligament

29

Which ligament is the strongest of the sacro-iliac ligaments and is penetrated by dorsal rami of the sacral spinal nerves?

interosseous sacro-iliac ligament

30

What is the homolog for the inferior articular process and facet at S5?

sacral cornu

31

What is the homolog for the superior articular process and facet at Co1?

coccygeal cornu

32

What is the number of the coccygeal somites?

ten

33

What is the typical number of segments that unite to form the adult coccyx?

4 segments

34

When is ossification of coccyx completed?

about age 30

35

What is the direction of fusion of coccygeal segments?

from caudal to cranial, the last segments to fuse together are Co1 and Co2

36

What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?

posterior (kyphotic)

37

What is the major motion and range of motion for the coccyx?

flexion-extension: 5-20 degrees

38

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the fetus?

typically 5 pairs of coccygeal nerves are present

39

What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?

S4, S5, and Co1 nerves

40

What is the ganglion impar?

a midline sympathetic ganglion

41

What is the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?

an enlarged encapsulated arteriovenous anastamosis location near the last segment of coccyx