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Flashcards in Short Term Memory Deck (27):
1

Briefly describe what is the duration of Short term memory

Short term memory has a very short duration, less than 18 seconds as long as verbal rehearsal is preventeded

2

What was the study for Short term memory Duration?

Peterson and Peterson (1959)

3

What size was the sample did Peterson and Peterson (1959) used when conducting the study?

24 Students

4

How many trials did Peterson and Peterson give their participants?

8

5

Describe the task given by Peterson and Peterson

Each participant was given a consonant syllable and a three digit number (e.g THX 512) to recall after a retention interval where verbal rehearsal is prevented using a with the task of counting backwards

6

What percentage was correct after 3 seconds?

90% correct

7

What percentage was correct after 9 seconds?

20% correct

8

What percentage was correct after 18 seconds?

2% correct

9

What conclusion can be drawn from the data from Peterson and Peterson's study on short term memory.

The findings suggest that Short Term Memory has a short duration as long as verbal rehearsal is prevented

10

What is the capacity of short term memory?

7 plus or minus 2

11

What is the capacity for digits according to Joseph Jacobs in the short term memory?

9.3

12

What is the capacity for letters according to Joseph Jacobs in the short term memory?

7.3

13

What Theory did George miller have and when?

The magic number ( 7 +/- 2) in 1956

14

What did Miller find about how many words and letters we can remember? and why is this?

We can remember 5 words just as well as 5 letters because we can remember more when we chunk things together.

15

How is the short term memory encoded?

Acoustically

16

What is an evaluation for STM capacity?

"The size of chunk matters " and " Individual differences"

17

Regarding the evaluation for STM capacity, explain why "Size of chunk matters"

- The bigger the chunk , the harder it is to remember
- Simon (1974) Found that people had a shorter memory for 8 phrases words or chunks compared to smaller chunks such as one syllable words.

18

Regarding the evaluation for STM capacity, explain why "Individual differences" Matter

Jacobs found out that recall "aka digit span" increases with age

8 year olds remembered 6.6 digits whereas 19 year olds remembered 8.6 digits

19

Why do you think there was a difference between the digit span of the 8 and 19 year olds?

-With age there may be an gradual increase in brain capacity

- With age the development of chunking may improve

20

According to Jacobs what was the digit span of 8 year olds?

6.6

21

According to Jacobs what was the digit span of a 19 year old?

8.6

22

What are the evaluations for the duration of STM?

" Testing was artificial" - low in external validity
"STM results may be due to displacement" -

23

Regarding the evaluation for STM duration, explain why "STM results may be due to displacement"

Displacement > decay
counting the numbers in STM may overwrite the syllables that were to be rembered

24

Who suggested that a flaw in STM duration may be displacement rather than decay?

Reitman, 1974

25

How did Reitmen suggest that STM duration may be limited by displacement rather than decay?

By using auditory tones rather than numbers (because auditory tones don't interfere with verbal rehearsal ) and found that it was longer

- Nairne et al (1999) found that items could be recalled even after 96 seconds

26

Who found that items could be recalled after 96 when using auditory tones?

Nairne et all (1999)

27

Evaluation for STM being encoding acoustically

STM may not exclusively be acoustically encoded

- Brandimote et al (1992)
in a visual task when participants looked at a picture and hand to say "la la la la la " in an interval to prevent verbal rehearsal participants therefore used visual encoding to recall the picture.

-Wickens et al (1972)
claims that information is sometimes encoded to STM via semantic