Flashcards in Stages of Healing Deck (42)
Electric stimulation, heat and cold therapy, mechanical energy, and light are all example of what kind of treatment category?
Are electrophysical agents primarily used as a primary treatment or a complementary treatment?
What is the difference between active and passive care?
Active = patient has to perform activity/exercise to achieve effect
Passive = doctor applies intervention
What are the 4 stages of healing (Belanger)?
What is the duration for each stage of healing?
Hemostasis = seconds/minutes
Inflammatory = hours/days/weeks
Proliferation = weeks/months
Remodeling/maturation = months/year
What are the 3 stages of healing (other model)?
What is another name for the inflammatory phase?
What is the purpose of the inflammatory/acute phase?
1 defend against foreign intruders (infection)
2 remove damaged tissue and debris
3 immobilize area
What types of tissue don't heal well?
Avascular or poorly vascularized tissue
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation derived from Celsus in A.D. 25?
Which cardinal sign of inflammation was derived from Virchow in 1902?
Loss of function (functio laesa)
What is the 6th sign of inflammation added by Belanger?
What vascular changes are present in the inflammatory phase of healing?
2 increased capillary permeability
What cells are responsible for the phagocytosis seen in the inflammation stage of healing?
Neutrophils and macrophages
The inflammation stage of healing is controlled and initiated by approximately how many chemicals?
Bradykinin, prostaglandins, and serotonin are examples of chemicals that initiate what kind of sensation during the inflammatory phase of healing?
What type of injury can occur following too much inflammation during the healing process?
Secondary enzymatic injury or secondary hypoxic injury
What occurs with secondary enzymatic injuries?
Lysosomal enzymes are released an attack healthy tissue
What occurs with secondary hypoxic injuries?
Decreased O2 and nutrients leading to damage of surrounded uninjured tissue
Hemorrhage, clotting, edema, spasm, and hematomas are all examples of what kind of injury following excessive inflammation?
Secondary hypoxic injury
What are the ultimate goals of the inflammatory phase?
Limit extent of inflammation (only small amount needed)
Preserve range of motion (ROM)
What is the acronym used for the inflammatory phase of healing?
Protect, rest, ice, compress, elevate
What are the lengths of the acute phase of healing for ankle sprains for each grade type?
Grade 1 = 1-3 days
Grade 2 = 2-4 days
Grade 3 = 3-7 days
What are the top areas of focus during the acute phase of an ankle sprain?
1 decrease swelling and pain
2 maintain motion and appropriate weight bearing
3 protect from re-injury
What is another name for the proliferative phase?
What is the term for the production of new capillaries during the proliferative phase of healing?
What types of cells are primarily at work during the proliferative phase?
Fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts
What type of fibers and cells are found in the ECM during the proliferative phase?
Type III collagen & proteoglycans
Why are Type III collagen fibers not ideal?