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Flashcards in Task 6 Deck (19)
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Bipolar Disorder

Manic depression
- mania and depression



-Racing thoughts
-feelings of grandiosity
-decreased need for sleep


Depression (in bipolar disorder)

-low energy


Depressive Disorders

-only depressive aspect (no mania as in bipolar)



In depression
- loss of interest in everything in life


Psychomotor retardation

- slowing down
- talking more quiet
- chronically fatigued
- no quick reaction


Psychomotor agitation

-physical agitation
- can not sit still
- move around a lot
- fidget (zappeln) aimlessly


Delusions & Hallucinations

People with severe depression may have this
- lose touch with reality
- beliefs with no base in reality
- may hear and see things that are not real
(That are usually negative)


Prevalence of major depression

Lifetime 5.2-17.1 %

Lifetime risk men: 20%
Lifetime risk women: 30%


Comorbidities of depression

- with anxiety problems highly comorbid: about 60%


Major Depressive Disorder DSM-V diagnosis

Five or more symptoms need to be present during same 2-week period

- they need to show change from normal functioning
- at least one must be either
1. Depressed mood
2. Loss of interest or pleasure

- 5 criteria in DSM-V (A-E)


Major Depressive Disorder
Criterion A

1. Depressed mood most of the day
—> indicated subjective or by others

2. Diminished interest/pleasure in all or almost all activities most of the day (almost) every day

3. Significant weight loss (when not dieting) or weight gain (change of more than 5% of weight in a month)
- or decrease/increase in appetite nearly daily

4. Insomnia or hypersomnia

5. Psychomotor agitation/retardation nearly every day (observable by others)

6. Fatigue or energy loss (nearly everyday)

7. Feelings of worthlessness/excessive/inappropriate guilt (nearly every day)

8. Diminished ability to think/concentrate or indecisiveness (Unschlüssigkeiten) (nearly every day)

9. Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation without specific plan, suicide attempt or specific plan to commit suicide


Major Depressive Disorder
Criterion B

Symptoms cause
- clinically significant distress
- social impairment
- occupational impairment
- or impairment in other important areas of functioning


Major Depressive Disorder
Criterion C

Episode can’t be attributed to physiological effects of substance or medical condition


Major Depressive Disorder
Criterion D

Occurrence of disorder not better explained by
- schizoaffective disorder
- schizophrenia
- schizophreniform disorder
- delusional disorder
- or other (un)specific schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders


Major Depressive Disorder
Criterion E

There was never a manic episode or hypomanic episode

BUT not if episodes like this occurred due to: - substances
- other medical condition


Persistent Depressive Disorder

Chronic form of Depression
- need to meet criteria of major depressive disorder for 2 years
- has diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder

diagnosis requires:
- poor appetite
- insomnia or hypersomnia
- low energy, fatigue
- low self-esteem
- poor concentration
- hopelessness


Subtypes of major depressive disorder

- anxious distress
- mixed features
- melancholic features
- psychotic features
- catatonic features
- atypical features
- seasonal pattern
- peripartum onset


Premenstrual dysmorphic disorder

Increased distress in premenstrual phase of menstrual cycle
- symptoms often mix of depression, anxiety, tension, irritability, anger
- they may occur in mood swings
- many experience it mildly, only 2% match criteria