Test 2 - concussion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 - concussion Deck (24)
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1

definition of a concussion

acute trauma-induced alteration of mental function lasting fever than 24 hours, with or without preceding loss of consciousness

2

severity of concussion is determined by

presence and duration of loss of consciousness and post-traumatic amnesia

3

definition of mild traumatic brain injury

head trauma with loss of consciousness, lasting fever than 30 mins and post-traumatic amnesia lasting fewer than 24 hours

4

T/F: MTBI and concussion are generally used interchangeably in literature

TRUE

5

form of amnesia where new events are not transferred to long term memory

anterograde amnesia (not making new memory)

6

someone will be unable to recall events that occured before the onset of amnesia

retrograde amnesia (tape has been erased)

7

T/F: both retrograde and anterograde amensia may occure at the same time and may have differing courses

TRUE

8

due to shearing forces that damage individual axons

widespread but microscopic damage (causes inflammation)

will not show up on image

axon is tethered at both ends, and is very thin in between... perfect set-up of shear related disruption

diffuse axon injury (DAI)

9

areas of bruising with associated localized ischemia, edema, and mass effect due to swelling

present with focal neurologic deficits

SS include: weakness, numbness, incoordination, difficulties with speech, memory, thought processes and behavioral or emotional control

brain contusion

10

grade I concussion

no loss of conciousness 

concussion symptoms less than 15 mins

11

grade II concussion

no loss of consciousness

concussion symptoms greater than 15 mins

12

grade III concussion

loss of consciousness of any duration

13

red flags / transport now 

inability to awaken the pt

severe or worsening headaches

somnolence or confusion

restlessness, unsteadiness or seizures

difficulties with vision

vomiting, fever or stiff neck - meningitis

urinary or bowel incontinence

weakness or numbness involving any part of the body

 

14

conservative Rx

antioxidants

b vitamins

fish oil

anti inflmmatory supplements 

gentle manipulation of neck 

proprio rehab

neuro stuff 

15

what does REST stand for

resume 

exercise

below 

symptom 

threshold

16

AAN parameters of grade I

remove from activity

examine every 5 mins

return asymptomatic in 15 mins or less

second grade I in same event: remove from activity

17

AAN parameters grade II

remove from activity with no return

examine next day

return to play only if asymptomatic for one week with execise

image if HA or sympt worsen or persist for more than one week

after second grade II: return after 2 weeks

18

AAN parameters grade III

thorough exam, transport if LOC > a few mins

image

if pt stable... examine daily 

ER if sympt worsen

second grade III: one month

abnormal scan: out for season

19

repeated concussions over a short period may lead to 

second impact syndrome

20

concussion sustained while still symptomatic from an earlier concussion results in _______

progressive cerebral edema

21

who has the the greatest risk and longest recovery of progressive cerbral edema 

adolescent females due to low stability of neck and lacking proprioception

22

postconcussion syndrome can last from 

months to years

specially in females

23

T/F: it is not necessary to have a loss of consciousness to suffer permanent brain injury

TRUE

24