In post-Napoleonic Europe, the major nation states were dedicated to conservatism. What is conservatism?
Conservatism emphasizes traditions such as monarchy, aristocracy, and religion as society's bedrocks.
European conservatives in the 19th century believed in gradual change and supported hierarchical rule by those whose birth, wealth, or intellects they believed made them better able to govern. Conservatism strongly rejected the principle of natural rights and social contract theory.
According to classical liberalism, the well being of the _____ is the paramount reason for the existence of society.
Liberals during the 19th century believed that the individual was self-sufficient, and continued the Enlightenment belief in the importance of natural rights, such as freedom of speech and the right to own property.
Nationalism refers to a belief that the person's supreme loyalty belongs to the nation, a people united by a common language, culture, and history.
Nationalists sought to establish states composed of all members of a given nation.
Predominant from 1800-1850, Romanticism was a European cultural reaction to the Enlightenment's emphasis on reason.
Distinctly optimistic rather than coldly calculating, Romanticism appealed to emotion and feeling. The Romantic cultural movement emphasized change, progress, and the individual.
What diplomat hosted the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15?
Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859), Austria's foreign minister, hosted the Congress of Vienna.
An arch-conservative, Metternich was opposed to liberalism and nationalism; both for the threats they posed to Europe as a whole and to the Austrian state.
How did the Congress of Vienna restore the governments of states who'd had their leaders deposed by the French Revolution or by Napoleon?
The Congress of Vienna was dedicated to the principle of legitimacy. This meant restoring the crown of France to the Bourbons in the form of Louis XVI's younger brother, Louis XVIII.
In addition, the House of Orange was restored in Holland, Bourbon kings were returned to the thrones of Naples and Spain, and the House of Savoy was restored in Sardinia-Piedmont.
Who was Talleyrand?
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, better known as Talleyrand, was the premier French diplomat from the 1790s through the 1830s, and represented his government at the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15. He served Louis XVI, the French Revolutionary government, Napoleon, Louis XVIII, Charles X, and Louis Philippe, often betraying one to serve his successor.
Talleyrand was famous for his diplomatic skills and his penchant for intrigue. Many of the diplomatic arrangements and treaties of the period were due to Talleyrand's skill.
What punitive measures did the Congress of Vienna take with respect to France?
The Congress of Vienna wanted to weaken France's offensive military capability, while avoiding any action which would breed resentment among the French and lead to further warfare. The Congress returned France to its pre-revolutionary borders and imposed an indemnity of 700 million francs. It did not require France to give up its army or overseas territory.
What territorial arrangements did the Congress of Vienna establish to keep France contained?
The Congress of Vienna surrounded France with strengthened nations. The Dutch Republic and Austrian Netherlands were united into a single kingdom (modern-day Netherlands and Belgium). In Italy, Piedmont, Savoy, and the kingdom of Sardinia were united to establish a check on France's southeastern frontier.
The Congress recognized Switzerland as an independent nation. Prussia gained territories along the Rhine to check French incursions into Germany.
What was the German Confederation?
Established at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the German Confederation was a cooperative agreement comprising the 39 German states, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia.
The German Confederation was designed to coordinate policy and mutual protection within Germany.
In 1815, four European nations combined to form the Quadruple Alliance. Which four nations participated?
The four nations of the Quadruple Alliance were Prussia, Austria, Britain, and Russia. The Alliance was a continuation of the alliance which had defeated Napoleon, and each nation committed itself to preserve the existing order.
France was the only Great Power not part of the Quadruple Alliance.
Between 1815 and 1848, the major European powers often acted together to resolve European diplomatic and political issues. What was this system called?
Since the Great Powers acted in concert (together), this system is known as the Concert of Europe. Any of the Great Powers could propose a congress, at which major European diplomatic and political concerns were discussed.
The Concert of Europe marks the first time the major powers acted collectively to ensure international tranquility.
In 1818, at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, which nation joined the Quadruple Alliance?
The Congress discussed the withdrawal of occupation troops from France, as well as other issues, such as piracy in the Mediterranean, that had arisen since the Congress of Vienna. With France involved, the concert system was now the Quintuple Alliance.
What were the Carlsbad Decrees?
In 1819, under the direction of Metternich, the German Confederation banned student fraternities. The student fraternities, known as Burschenschaften, advocated German nationalism and political liberalism.
Beginning in 1821, Greek rebels revolted against what power?
In 1821, a nationalist Greek revolt against the Ottoman Turks began, lasting until 1827. As it took place in the birthplace of classical civilization, the Greek Revolution galvanized Romantics as well as the western democracies, Britain and France.
Joined by Russia, the three powers intervened to defeat the Turks at the Battle of Navarino Bay and impose Greek independence. The intervention by three of the five Great Powers had taken place without the consent of a congress, a violation of the Powers' 1815 agreement.
What was the Corn Law of 1815?
Passed by the Tories, the Corn Law of 1815 halted the importation of foreign grains into Britain. While the bill aided the aristocratic Tory landowners, it increased the price of bread, leading to widespread protests from the poor and calls to reform Parliament.
In 1819, at St. Peters Field in Manchester, British cavalry charged into a crowd demanding Parliamentary reform, killing 15 people. This event is known as the _____ _____.
In response to the Peterloo Massacre the reactionary British government passed the Six Acts of 1819, labeling any meeting of radicals as an act of treason.
Beginning in the 1820s, what reforms were pushed by Tory leaders Robert Peel and George Canning?
Peel and Canning, younger members of the Tory Party, advocated reform over reaction. The two led the way in reforming Britain's criminal code, liberalizing trade, and eliminating religious qualifications from government participation.
Peel and Canning broke from elder Tories, and aligned with moderate Whigs to push for reforms.
Following an electoral victory in 1830, the Whigs passed the Great Reform Bill of 1832. What reforms did the Bill establish?
The Reform Bill increased the franchise, increasing the number of voters by 50%.
In addition, the bill eliminated a number of rotten boroughs (Parliamentary districts with few voters) and replaced them with increased representation from urban manufacturing districts.
What was Chartism?
Chartism (which got its name from the People's Charter to Parliament) was a working class reform movement in Britain which began in the 1830s. Among the Chartists' demands were universal male suffrage, a secret ballot, annual Parliamentary elections, reforms to open up Parliament to working class membership, and equal Parliamentary boroughs.
Although Parliament refused to negotiate with the Chartists, most reforms were adopted in later decades.
Prior to gaining the French throne, Louis XVIII agreed to abide by what document?
Louis XVIII agreed to abide by the Charter of 1814, France's newest governing document.
The Charter instituted a constitutional monarchy, established a legislature including the popularly elected Chamber of Deputies, and recognized the Code Napoleon.
What was the White Terror?
The White Terror took place in 1815, when Louis XVIII and the royalists purged office holders from the government suspected of loyalty to Napoleon.
The White Terror took a violent turn, and hundreds of liberals, former revolutionaries, and Napoleonic loyalists were killed by mobs.
How did Louis XVIII react to the assassination of his nephew, the duc de Berry?
When the duc de Berry (the son of the future King Charles X) was assassinated in 1820, blame fell upon France's liberals.
Previously a moderate, Louis XVIII enacted strict laws, curtailing the franchise and imposing censorship. Liberalism became nearly illegal, and liberals were driven from the French government.
In 1824, Charles X became King of France after the death of Louis XVIII. His first royal acts were aimed at strengthening what group?
Charles X proposed numerous laws to the French legislature aimed at strengthening the French nobility.
Charles X was never popular, and when elections to the Chamber of Deputies in 1830 failed to provide a majority that supported the monarchy, Charles X introduced Four Ordinances severely restricting the power of the legislature and suspended the Constitution.
In 1830, Charles X authorized a military expedition to what country?
In 1830, Charles X authorized a military invasion of Algeria. The punitive expedition was in response to a perceived insult to the French Ambassador by the local ruler, who'd struck the ambassador with a fan.
The French would remain in control of Algeria for more than a century.
How did Parisian workers and students react to Charles X's Four Ordinances restricting civil liberties and the suspension of the French Constitution in July 1830?
French workers and students barricaded the narrow streets of Paris; in the face of urban unrest and a nascent revolution, Charles X fled to Britain. The Paris revolt is known as the July Revolution.
What group named Louis Philippe to the French throne in 1830?
The popularly elected Chamber of Deputies named Louis Philippe to the throne in 1830.
Louis Philippe belonged to a junior branch of the French royal line, the House of Orléans. Louis Philippe was widely believed to be a liberal who would rule with the interest of the bourgeois in mind.
What country declared its independence from the Dutch in 1830?
Inspired by the July Revolution, Belgium declared its independence from the Dutch. After the defeat of a Dutch army sent to put down the revolt, a national congress drafted a liberal constitution.
In 1831, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha accepted the Belgian throne, becoming king of the Belgians.
Who were the Decembrists?
Following the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825, a group of moderately liberal military officers, the Decembrists, demonstrated against the autocratic regime of the new Tsar Nicholas I.
Under artillery fire, the demonstration crumbled quickly. For the next 30 years, Nicholas I would be Europe's most conservative monarch.
In November of 1830, a group of _____ military cadets led an uprising against the Tsar.
The liberal uprising began in Warsaw, and after the rebels declared independence from Russia, it spread throughout much of Poland. Using brutal means, Tsar Nicholas I crushed the rebellion.
Risorgimento (Italian for resurgence) was the 19th-century movement for Italian unity and independence.
Until 1848, the Risorgimento was both nationalist and Romantic, desiring a unified Italy and a renewal of Italian society.
Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?
Mazzini was the head of a secret society, Young Italy, that was dedicated to unifying Italy. An 1831 attempt by Mazzini and his allies, the Carbonari, to institute a popular uprising in support of Italian unification was crushed by the Austrians.
The Carbonari were armed Italian groups that supported the use of armed force to establish a unified Italian state.
In 1831, the Carbonari participated in a revolution designed to achieve Italian unity, but disorganization and the strong Austrian army foiled the attempt.
What were the only two major European countries to avoid violent uprisings in 1848?
Only Britain and Russia avoided violent uprisings in 1848. Britain had already made reforms similar to those sought by revolutionaries in other countries, and the populace had sufficient confidence in Parliament to continue the reform program, such that no uprising took place.
In Russia, the stability of the regime prevented the formation of a nascent revolutionary movement.
In February of 1848, riots erupted in Paris, eventually leading to the abdication of Louis Philippe and the declaration of the Second French Republic. What caused the riots?
The riots were caused by many factors. Up to a third of Parisians were unemployed, poor harvests had led to increased prices for food, and many of the lesser bourgeoisie lacked the franchise. Louis Philippe's outlawing of political meetings was the last straw; Paris erupted on February 22, 1848 and once more, barricades blocked the streets.
What two major reforms did the Second French Republic promulgate in 1848?
In its first days, the Second French Republic granted universal male suffrage and established a "right to work."
The right to work led to the creation of National Workshops, the brainchild of socialist Louis Blanc. By May 1848 they employed more than 100,000 workers.
In April 1848, French voters elected a moderate, bourgeoisie majority to the National Assembly, which closed the National Workshops in June. How did workers respond?
Once more, riots broke out in Paris and workers took to the barricades, an event known as the June Days.
Unlike previous revolutions, the June Days were marked by class warfare, and the Parisian mob called for economic redistribution of wealth, shouting "Property is theft." General Cavaignac, given dictatorial powers by the new government, put down the revolt.
Who did voters elect as President of the French Republic in December 1848?
In the 1848 election, voters rejected General Cavaignac, the putative favorite, for Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of the former emperor.
Voters saw in Louis-Napoleon a strong leader who would prevent the foment of the working class and return France to stability.
In 1848, revolutions took place throughout Italy. What was the primary purpose of the revolutionaries?
The Italian revolutionaries demanded a united Italy. Initially, they achieved some success that augured for a united Italy; liberal constitutions were established in a number of the Italian states, and Giuseppe Mazzini declared a Roman republic.
Intervention by the French and the Austrians crushed the revolts in 1849.
Why was nationalism such a threat to the Austrian Empire?
Austria ruled a number of different nationalities; Hungarians, Poles, Slavs, Germans, Jews, and Italians.
A successful nationalist uprising by one or more of these groups could lead to the disintegration of the Empire.
In March of 1848, dissatisfaction with the Hapsburg monarch led to uprisings in ______ by students and workers.
At first, Emperor Ferdinand I (1793-1875) attempted to placate the students and workers by granting a more liberal constitution. Disorder continued, and Ferdinand I fled to the protection of the Austrian Army.
What two factors led to the failure of the Austrian uprisings of 1848?
First, although they'd seized Vienna and ejected the Hapsburgs, the Austrian revolutionaries were disorganized and failed to govern effectively.
Secondly, the Austrian Army remained loyal to the Hapsburgs, and after a siege of Vienna the rebels surrendered. Ferdinand I did resign the crown in favor of his nephew Franz Joseph I, who reimposed the absolute monarchy and would reign from 1848 to 1916.
In 1848, the Czechs called for a meeting of all members of what ethnic group in Prague?
The Czechs called for all Slavs to meet at a Pan-Slav Congress. The Congress was disorganized and could not even agree whether it was advisable to break from Austria and establish an independent nation or to ask for autonomy within the Austrian Empire.
The arrival of the Austrian Army and the bombardment of Prague ended the Congress.
Who led the Hungarians in a revolution against Austrian authority in the summer and fall of 1848?
Louis Kossuth, a Hungarian nationalist, sought to gain freedom from Austria and led the Hungarians in a revolt.
Kossuth's forces pushed within a few miles of Vienna, but the revolution was doomed by the combination of a military defeat by the Austrian Army, an invasion of Hungary by the forces of Tsar Nicholas I (who'd dispatched an army to the Austrians' assistance), and the revolt of Slavic minorities within Hungary. Kossuth fled to the United States.
In early 1848, liberals and nationalists demonstrated throughout the German states. What two things did they demand?
The demonstrators desired a constitutional government and the unification of Germany. Even Prussian Frederick William IV agreed to a liberalized Prussian constitution as the results of riots in Berlin.
Only when the riots were quelled did Frederick William IV feel comfortable ignoring the liberals' demands.
In 1848 and 1849, liberal and nationalist leaders met in Frankfurt. What was the goal of this assembly?
The Frankfurt Assembly sought to establish a united Germany and drafted a constitution. Prussian support was necessary for the plan to succeed and the Assembly offered the crown of a united Germany to Frederick William IV.
Convinced that accepting a crown from mere citizens would undermine his rule, Frederick William IV declined the offer. He declared he would not "pick up a crown from the gutter."