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Flashcards in The Psychology Of Pain Deck (20)
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Types of pain

Organic-> pain clearly linked to tissue damage
Psychogenic-> no observable physical cause-> discomfort seems to originate from psychological factors -> chronic pain disorder
Acute-> lasts less than sixth months-> high anxiety that subsides
Chronic-> more than sixth mons-> anxiety persists-> helplessness and hopelessness, interferes with daily activity
Recurrent-> benign cause-> repeated intense episodes separated by no pain
Intractable-> begin cause->constant discomfort, variable intensity
Progressive-> malignant cause-> increasingly intense

1

Noiceptive pain

Arthropathies
Myalgia
Skin and mucosal ulcerations
Non articuler inflammatory disorders
Visceral pain

2

Neuropathic pain

Post herpectic neuralgia
Trigeminal neuralgia
Diabetic poly neuropathy
Post stroke
Post amputation
Causalgial like syndrome-> complex regional pain

3

Mixed/unknown pain

Chronic recurrent headaches
Vasculopathic pain syndromes

4

Psychologically based pain syndromes

Somatisation disorders
Hysterical reactions

5

Pain without detectable body damage

Persists long after healing
May spread or increase in intensity
May become stronger than initial pain from the injury

6

Neuralgia

Very painful
Shooting/stabbing pain along the course of a nerve
Sudden, provoked by innocuous stimuli
-> trigeminal neuralgia

7

Causalgial

Recurrent severe burning pain
Originates from a region with earlier injury

8

Hyperalgesia

Intensified perception of mild painful stimulus

9

Allodynia

Perception of pain in response to the lightest a of touched, even spontaneous pain

10

Phantom limb pain

90-98% of amputees experience this
Similar pain to original injury
Or pain at body parts next to amputated limb on somatosensory map

11

Gated control theory

Filtering of noxious stimulation/modulation of incoming pain signals before they reach the CNS
Includes psychological modulation of pain
Believed to be the substantia gelatnosa
Open-> transmission reaches transmission cells-> relayed to brain-> feel pain when they reach the threshold
Level of signal from transmission cells is determined by the extent to which the gate is open
Signal from brain determines how open the gate is

12

Conditions which open the gate

Physical-> extent of injury, inappropriate activity levels
Emotional-> anxiety or worry, tension, depression
Mental conditions-> focusing on pain, boredom

13

Conditions which close the gate

Physical-> medications, counter stimulation
Emotional-> positive emotions, relaxation, rest
Mental-> intense concentration or distraction, involvement and interest in life activities

14

Sensory-discriminative component of pain

3 rapid conduction systems
-> neospinothalamic
-> spinocervical
-> post synaptic neurones in dorsal column
Location, intensity and quality

15

Motivational-affective dimension of pain

Reticular formation and limbic system
-> unpleasantness of pain

16

Cognitive-evaluative

Cultural values, attention, suggestion-> change the pain experience
Subverted in part by cortical process-> frontal lobes

17

Perception of pain

Conscious perception of pain only occurs when impulses reach thalmocortical level
Threshold the same in everyone
Lowered by inflammation and raised in anaesthetics, lesions and centrally acting anagesics

18

Cognitive behaviour therapy for pain

Direct and indirect negative reinforcement of pain behaviour
-> positive reinforcement of well behaviour
Physical fitness and function
Education
Coping mechanisms

19

Other pain therapies

Operant approach-> extinction of pain behaviour by reinforcement of appropriate behaviour
Relaxation and biofeedback-> headaches
Hypnosis-> variable with suggestibility
Acupuncture-> may close spinal gate, reduced anxiety from beside it will work, endorphin release