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Physics Module 4 > Treatment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Treatment Deck (17):
1

How are medical radioisotopes produced?

By placing materials into a nuclear reactor

2

Describe uses of nuclear radiation in medicine

- diagnosis
- treatment of cancer using gamma rays
- sterilisation of equipment

3

What types of radiation can pass through skin?

Only beta and gamma radiation

4

What effect does nuclear radiation have on human body?

It can damage cells

5

Describe the role of a radiographer

Takes X-rays and uses radiation

6

Describe the safety precautions that a radiographer must take

E.g. Standing behind a lead screen when X-raying a patient so that he/she does not receive a dangerous accumulated dose of radiation

7

Explain how gamma rays are given out

From the nucleus of certain radioactive materials

8

Explain how X-rays are made

By firing high speed electrons at metal targets

9

Which is easier to control:
x-rays or gamma rays

X-rays are easier to control than gamma rays

10

Explain how radioactive sources are used to treat cancer

1. Gamma rays are focussed on tumour
2. Wide beam is used
3. Rotated round the patient with tumour at centre
4. Limiting damage to non-cancerous tissue

11

Explain how radioactive sources are used as a tracer

- beta or gamma emitter with a shirt half life
- drunk/eaten/injected/ingested into the body
- allowed to spread through the body
- followed on the outside by a radiation detector

12

Do materials absorb some ionising material

Yes

13

What does the image produced by the absorption of X-rays depend on

The thickness and density of the absorbing materials

14

Explain why gamma (and sometimes beta) emitters can be used as tracers in the body

Because they are capable of passing out of the body to be detected

15

Understand why medical tracers should not remain active in the body for long periods

So that the patient does not remain radioactive for too long si need a short half-life

16

Describe how materials can become radioactive as a result of absorbing extra neutrons

By putting the material into a nuclear reactor which makes its nucleus unstable so it emits radiation

17

Describe some similarities and differences between X-rays and gamma rays

- both are ionising electromagnetic waves
- have similar wavelengths
- are produced in different ways