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Flashcards in What makes human typical human Deck (47)
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31

the origin of Homo Sapiens

200.000 years ago -> referred to as anatomically modern human

32

What are old world monkeys?

catarrhines : baboons, macaques

33

Were AMH a distinct species which replaced Neanderthals in Europe without interbreeding ?

AMH entering europe replaced neanderthals with little or no interbreeding

34

pleistocene

fast and repeated oscillation between warm and wet climates and glacial periods

35

holocene

current warm period that started 10.000 years ago -> metal working, agriculture and settled towns

36

General intelligence hypothesis

larger brains enable humans to perform all kinds of cognitive operations more efficiently than other species

37

Adapted intelligence hypothesis

cognitive abilities evolve in response to relatively specific environmental challenges

38

A gene that makes human brains unique

- found in modern human as well as it was carried by neanderthals
- testing in mice embryos showed that it has profound impact -> BUT gene does not have same impact evry time
- gene is highly active in stem cells that make neurons in neocortex

-> gene does not make us smarter than animals but it is seen as key part what makes us human
-> proximate explanation

39

Chimps vs cows

- both have brains about 400grams
-> whatever chimpanzees exhibit more flexible, complex behaviors , have wider behavioral and vocal repetorie and larger learning capacities

40

Encephalization quotient (linked to brain size relative to body size

as an organism increases in size, the dimensions of its parts do not increase proportionally
Brain size = C (Body size) *k

41

Where are most neurons in the brain located?

98% in Cerebellum
-> humans have 16 billion neuron and gorillas and orang utans 9 billion in cerebral cortex

-> high number of neuron provide us with capacity or potentially to learn (=innate capacity to learn)

42

Factors for evolution of learning

1 innate capacity to learn
(without training and learning children arrest at stage of raw material -> no problem solving skills)N

2 modern life -> people are exposed to challenges

3 increased genetic improvement

43

HAR1

cortical expansion, increased cortical control of behavior (less by spinal cord)

44

FOXP2

enhanced the capacity to speak and learn a language

45

srgap2

enhanced learning (synaptic plasticy)

46

FOXP2 in mice

lead to increase of vocalizations and better learning capacities

47

FOXP2 contribution to language evolution

-> you can teach apes symbols to a certain extent but never how to speak
->FOXP2 led to an increase in vocal flexibility