What is fascia? & embryological origins?
It is connective tissue found throughout the body
It is the undifferentiated tissues of mesenchymal origin that form the connective tissue mass of the body
What are the functions of fascia?
–Enveloping all organs,
–Provides lining to all organs,
–Separates tissues of the body
–Forms compartments between tissues
–Binds tissues of the body together
Name The 2 Main Classes of Fascia of The Neck
Fascia in general is divided into either:
Compact or Organised Fascia
Loose Fascia (i.e. Loose Connective Tissue)
Organised fascia of the body is further divisible into what?
NB. There are many anatomical differences between these 2 classes (e.g. attachments)
What do you understand by the term "potential space" as it applies to fascial planes of the neck?What do you understand by the term "potential space" as it applies to fascial planes of the neck?
- Adjacent fascial compartments of the neck are normally so close to one another as to be adherent
- Normally, there are no anatomical spaces to speak of between such adjacent fascial compartments or planes
- Blood from perforated vessels or pus from infections in the neck can collect as tissue mass in-between fascial planes, thereby creating "potential spaces" that did not exist prior to infection or bleed.
What is the anatomical importance of fascia of the neck?
It envelopes various organs of the neck, separating them into functional entities that can move against each other depending upon the function in question.
For example, when swallowing food, viscera within the pre-tracheal compartment can glide against others to make swallowing movements possible and comfortable
Why is knowledge of the fascia of the head and neck of clinical importance?
Understanding how infections and metastases in the region of the neck might spread from one site to another, including head and thorax can only be possible if we have a thorough knowledge of the organisation of tissues within fascial planes
Such knowledge allows us to understand the anatomical, functional and organisation of tissues of the neck
What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck?
Anterior Border–Median Line of The Neck
Posterior Border–Anterior margin of the sternomastoid muscle
Superior Border–The inferior margin of the mandible
What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck ?
–Posterior Margin of the sternomastoid muscle
–Anterior Margin of the trapezius muscle
–The middle 1/3 of the clavicle
Why might it be useful to view the neck as territories of triangles?
•It allows for an organised handle on the anatomical layout of tissues of the neck
•This then allows for structured and organised examination of tissues of the neck
The anterior triangle is itself further divisible into?
•Submental triangle &
In newborn babies, how and why might the sternomastoid muscle be damaged?
•In forceps delivery, the sternomastoid muscle is also at risk of trauma due to compression damage or being pulled during a difficult birth
How would a person with a damaged sternomastoid muscle present?
•Such a patient would present with tilt and rotation of the head. The tilt and rotation would be towards the normal side due to unilateral weakening of the injured (i.e. opposite) sternomastoid muscle (i.e. lower motoneurone sign)
•Such a presentation is known in neurology as torticolis
What is the motor innervation of the sternomastoid muscle?
It is supplied by the accessory nerve, i.e. CNXI
Some books might suggest that it is the spinal division of CNXI that supplies motor innervation
Some anatomists divide the head into the "neurocranium" and "viscerocranium". What is the Viscerocranium?
•It is the part of the skull constituted from the facial skeleton, having embryonic origins from branchial arches
•It is commonly referred to as the facial skeleton and includes the mandible
Some anatomists divide the head into the "neurocranium" and "viscerocranium". What is the Neurocranium?
•It is the cranium
•It is constituted from the skull base (i.e. fossae) & calvaria
•The cranium is the part of the skull that houses the brain
What is the main blood supply to the neurocranium?
•This question can be interpreted as asking the main blood supply to contents of the neurocranium or brain
•It is the Internal Carotid Artery
What is the main blood supply to the viscerocranium?
•This question can be interpreted as asking the main blood supply to extracranial tissues
•It is the External Carotid Artery