Y2 LCRS Neuroscience and Mental Health

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Flashcard maker: Michael Tomaschek

Decks in this class (79)

development of the CNS
neural tube: explain how the neural tube develops and the clinical result of abnormal development
18  cards
development of the CNS
neural crest cells: explain the term neural crest cells and recall examples of their development fates
4  cards
development of the CNS
brain development: explain how differential growth and flexures gives rise to development of the mature brain, and summarise how cerebral cortical layers form from the neuroepithelium
10  cards
development of the CNS
spinal cord: summarise the cellular basis of formation of the ependymal, grey matter and white matter regions of the spinal cord, and separation of the grey matter into sensory and motor areas
6  cards
development of the CNS
developmental neurobiology: explain how an understanding of developmental neurobiology may help in the treatment of neurological disorders
13  cards
spinal cord
spinal cord cross-sectional anatomy: demonstrate on a diagram the main areas of grey matter, and the main ascending and descending tracts
30  cards
spinal cord
spinal cord horns: define the function of the cells in the dorsal, ventral and intermediate horns of the spinal cord
3  cards
spinal cord
spinal cord gross anatomy: define the terms nerve, nerve root and ramus; explain the relationship between spinal and vertebral levels and the clinical significance; define the cervical and lumbar enlargements and recall the spinal segments involved
5  cards
spinal cord
meninges: recall the meningeal layers of the spinal cord and compare to those in the brain
7  cards
spinal cord
spinal lesions: define the sensory and motor deficits resulting from spinal cord lesions
10  cards
brainstem and cranial nerves
cranial nerve origins: explain the origins of the cranial nerves and explain how this relates to development of the brainstem
8  cards
brainstem and cranial nerves
brainstem: identify structures in the brainstem and recall their function
20  cards
cerebral blood flow
arterial blood supply: draw and explain the blood supply to the brain, identify perfusion fields for the main cerebral arteries and explain the neurological deficits that result following disruption
9  cards
cerebral blood flow
venous drainage: recognise the pattern of venous drainage of the brain
2  cards
cerebral blood flow
cerebrovascular pathology: define the following terms: cerebral ischaemia, cerebral infarction, cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism and cerebral haemorrhage; define "stroke" and "transient ischaemic attack" and list the main risk factors for these conditions; compare the effects of a cerebrovascular accident in the cerebral cortex with one in the brainstem
20  cards
cerebral blood flow
intra-cranial haemorrhage: explain the possible consequences of subdural or epidural haemorrhage
6  cards
cerebral blood flow
cerebral blood flow: explain the importance of cerebral blood flow regulation, list the neural and humoral factors involved in regulation, explain the regulatory mechanisms in response to changes in blood pressure and carbon dioxide tension
42  cards
cerebral blood flow
blood brain barrier: define the blood brain barrier and explain its significance
25  cards
thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus: identify and summarise the structure of the thalamus
13  cards
thalamus and hypothalamus
thalamic nuclei: explain the functional significance of the thalamic nuclei; explain the relationship between the intralaminar nuclei, reticular nucleus and the reticular formation
20  cards
thalamus and hypothalamus
hypothalamus: recall the functions of the hypothalamus and interactions with the endocrine and autonomic systems and the brain controlling mood and behavior
19  cards
somatosensory function
somatosensory modalities: list and define the major somatosensory modalities
12  cards
somatosensory function
somatosensory mechanisms: define the terms: receptor, stimulus threshold, stimulus intensity, adaptation, receptive field and lateral inhibition
27  cards
somatosensory function
central sensory structures: identify the location of sensory cortex and the parietal association cortex, and explain the somatotropic organisation
10  cards
somatosensory function
sensory pathways: explain the ascending pathways transmitting sensory information andsomatotropicorganisationwithin the pathway
9  cards
somatosensory function
somatosensory pathology: summarise the mechanisms of somatosensory disruption
4  cards
somatosensory function
nociceptors: explain the physiological function of nociceptors
39  cards
somatosensory function
gate theory: explain how nociceptive input can be gated by peripheral and central mechanisms
6  cards
somatosensory function
discrimination: explain the principle of lateral inhibition and recognise the clinical importance of two-point discrimination to assess posterior column patency
6  cards
motor function
motor cortex: recall the location and organisation of the primary motor cortex; explain the role of the premotor cortex and supplementary motor area
17  cards
motor function
corticospinal tracts: differentiate the anterior and lateral corticospinal tracts with respect to muscles supplied
5  cards
motor function
upper motor neurone lesions: recognise the signs and symptoms of upper motor neuron lesions
21  cards
motor function
motor neuron disease: summarise the pathophysiology of motor neuron disease
5  cards
basal ganglia and cerebellum
basal ganglia: recall the component structures of the basal ganglia
9  cards
basal ganglia and cerebellum
Parkinson's disease: recall the pathophysiology and clinical signs of Parkinson's disease
11  cards
basal ganglia and cerebellum
Huntingdon's disease: recall the pathophysiology and clinical signs of Huntingdon's disease
4  cards
basal ganglia and cerebellum
cerebellum: explain how the cerebellum contributes to coordination of movement, recognise the relevance of pathways into and out of the cerebellum, recognise how cellular organisation of the cerebellum relates to its functioning
15  cards
basal ganglia and cerebellum
ataxia: define ataxia and explain how lesions in specific areas of the cerebellum relate to effects in specific parts of the body
10  cards
motor function
neuromuscular junction: recall the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction
8  cards
motor function
motor neurons: summarise the organisation of alpha motor neurons within the spinal cord
5  cards
motor function
motor units: define the term "motor unit" and compare different types
22  cards
motor function
spinal motor tracts: summarise the functional organisation of the spinal cord (motor tracts)
6  cards
motor function
spinal reflexes: recognise a range of spinal reflexes, including stretch reflex, flexion / withdrawal reflex, crossed extension reflex); distinguish hypo- and hyperreflexia; explain the concept of supraspinal control of reflexes
15  cards
auditory function and balance
sound: explain frequency, pitch, intensity, volume and the decibel scale
5  cards
auditory function and balance
anatomy: summarise the anatomy of the ear, cochlea and labyrinth
23  cards
auditory function and balance
middle ear function: explain the mechanisms for amplification and protection of the middle ear
14  cards
auditory function and balance
sound transduction: explain the mechanisms of sound transduction from the middle ear to the cochlea
27  cards
auditory function and balance
central auditory pathways: list the main structures in the central auditory pathways and their functions, explain tonotopic mapping, and identify the part of the pathway involved in auditory reflexes
44  cards
auditory function and balance
deafness: list the causes of conductive and sensorineural deafness
18  cards
auditory function and balance
vestibular system: identify the functions and list the types of signals derived from the vestibular system
77  cards
auditory function and balance
clinical vestibular disturbance: define dizziness, vertigo and oscillopsia; recognise how these conditions differ; explain the consequences of uni- and bilateral loss of vestibular function
54  cards
vision
eye anatomy: identify the optical and functional anatomical components of the eye
59  cards
vision
aqueous humour: explain the production, circulation and drainage of the aqueous humour and the importance for maintenance of intraocular pressure
20  cards
vision
retina: list the main layers, cellular components and synaptic connections of the retina, and explain the basis of phototransduction
29  cards
vision
receptive fields: explain the purpose of receptive fields
23  cards
vision
colour blindness: explain the most common forms of colour blindness
10  cards
vision
optics: explain the basis of physiological optics and the common defects of refraction
45  cards
vision
visual pathways: explain the visual pathways and how specific visual field defects can arise from lesions at different sites, and explain the basic processes of visual integration occurring at different levels of the visual pathway
24  cards
vision
visual cortex: explain the concept of functional specialisation of the visual cortex
15  cards
vision
visual reflexes: identify afferent and efferent pathways of the pupillary light reflexes, and the near reflex
18  cards
vision
circadian visual system: define the circadian visual system and explain its significance
0  cards
vision
eye movements: recognise the main eye movements and their functions, identify the main brain structures involved in each kind of eye movement, recognise the main disorders that can occur with each type of eye movement and identify the main types of nystagmus
36  cards
sleep
stages of sleep: define the stages of sleep
14  cards
sleep
control of sleep: explain how the sleep / wake cycle is controlled by the lateral hypothalamus and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, and explain how the this is synchornised to day length
8  cards
sleep
sleep: summarise the functions of sleep and clinical examples of sleep disturbance
27  cards
consciousness
consciousness: define consciousness; explain the mechanisms, levels, and contents of consciousness; and define the concept of neural correlate of consciousness
10  cards
consciousness
reticular activating system: identify the main structures of the reticular activating system, explain the function of the reticular activating system in modulating activity of the cerebral cortex and association with different levels of consciousness
5  cards
consciousness
electroencephalography: define the main EEG rhythms which identify different levels of arousal
10  cards
consciousness
altered conscious level: define the main altered states of consciousness and explain the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)
18  cards
consciousness
coma: identify causes of metabolic and non-metabolic coma, and explain the differences between brain death, coma and persistent vegetative state
16  cards
cerebral cortex
cortical cellular organisation: identify the vertical and horizontal organisation of the cells of the neocortex
9  cards
cerebral cortex
cerebral white matter: explain the function of association, commissural and projection fibres in the cerebral white matter
7  cards
cerebral cortex
cortical function: recognise the inter-hemispheric differences in cortical function, and recognise ways to assess cortical function, including lesions, functional imaging and brain stimulation
19  cards
cerebral cortex
association cortex: list the functions of the association cortex in each cortical lobe, explain the types of deficits caused by lesions there, and compare the attributes of the primary and association cortex
16  cards
limbic system
olfactory anatomy: recognise the anatomical basis of the olfactory system
12  cards
limbic system
limbic system: explain the structure and function of the limbic system, and identify the functional effects of lesions to individual components of the limbic system
14  cards
limbic system
Papez circuit: identify the components of the Papez circuit
1  cards
limbic system
emotion: summarise the brain systems involved in emotion, including fear, anxiety, anger, aggression, reinforcement and reward
14  cards
limbic system
drug dependence: define the dopaminergic pathway thought to mediate drug dependence
8  cards

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Y2 LCRS Neuroscience and Mental Health

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