Flashcards in  Treatment Deck (21)
What type of studies involves just one patient?
What type of studies involves more than one patient?
What type of a study is a Cohort Study?
What type of study is a Clinical Trial?
What type of study is a Randomized Control Trial?
What type of study is a Case Control Studies?
What is the gold standard for scientific studies on treatment?
Randomized Control Trial
Define: Inclusion Criteria
Must have disease of interest with specific characteristics
Define: Exclusion Criteria
Having these will get you excluded from the study
Define: Hawthorne Effect
Patients want their doctors to have good results so they behave better than they normally would
What is a good method to overcome Sampling Biases?
Stratified Random Sampling
Differentiate Efficacy Studies from Effectiveness Studies
Efficacy: Reports treatments under IDEAL conditions
Effectiveness: Reports treatments under IDEAL-WORLD conditions (Normal circumstances)
Should subgroups be made before or after randomizing?
When can you perform Trial of N=1?
When disease has an unpredictable course and the treatment response is quick with no carry over effects
Limitations of Randomized Trials
1. Patient Number
Define: Historical Controls
Comparison to similar patients in the past
Define: Concurrent Controls
Similar to historic controls but avoids the biases of historic controls
Differentiate: Cohort and Case Control
Cohort: Follow up Patients
Case Control: Identify outcome of interest, the factors responsible for the outcome and only examine that one period
There is no follow up here
Describe: Phase I of Treatment Studies in RCTs
Identify ideal dose-to-safety
Small number of patients
Describe: Phase II of Treatment Studies in RCTs
Preliminary information of EFFICACY studies
Few patients in treatment groups