[4] Treatment Flashcards Preview

[IDC 212] 1st Lecture Exam > [4] Treatment > Flashcards

Flashcards in [4] Treatment Deck (21)
1

What type of studies involves just one patient?

Case Reports

2

What type of studies involves more than one patient?

Case Series

3

What type of a study is a Cohort Study?

Observational Study

4

What type of study is a Clinical Trial?

Experimental Study

5

What type of study is a Randomized Control Trial?

Experimental Study

6

What type of study is a Case Control Studies?

Observational Study

7

What is the gold standard for scientific studies on treatment?

Randomized Control Trial

8

Define: Inclusion Criteria

Must have disease of interest with specific characteristics

9

Define: Exclusion Criteria

Having these will get you excluded from the study

10

Define: Hawthorne Effect

Patients want their doctors to have good results so they behave better than they normally would

11

What is a good method to overcome Sampling Biases?

Stratified Random Sampling

12

Differentiate Efficacy Studies from Effectiveness Studies

Efficacy: Reports treatments under IDEAL conditions

Effectiveness: Reports treatments under IDEAL-WORLD conditions (Normal circumstances)

13

Should subgroups be made before or after randomizing?

Before

14

When can you perform Trial of N=1?

When disease has an unpredictable course and the treatment response is quick with no carry over effects

15

Limitations of Randomized Trials

1. Patient Number
2. Expensive
3. Time-Consuming
4. Manpower

16

Define: Historical Controls

Comparison to similar patients in the past

17

Define: Concurrent Controls

Similar to historic controls but avoids the biases of historic controls

18

Differentiate: Cohort and Case Control

Cohort: Follow up Patients

Case Control: Identify outcome of interest, the factors responsible for the outcome and only examine that one period

There is no follow up here

19

Describe: Phase I of Treatment Studies in RCTs

Identify ideal dose-to-safety

Small number of patients

20

Describe: Phase II of Treatment Studies in RCTs

Preliminary information of EFFICACY studies

Controlled Treatment

Few patients in treatment groups

21

Describe: Phase III of Treatment Studies in RCTs

Randomized Control Trial

Provide evidence on efficacy and adverse events and side effects