7.0 Puberty Flashcards Preview

MedST IB: Human Reproduction (HR) > 7.0 Puberty > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7.0 Puberty Deck (39)
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1

What age is average for menarche in females?

13yrs old

Usually no egg present (anovulatory)

2

What is a sign of male puberty?

First ejaculation (often nocturnal)

Usually only seminal plasma with no spermatozoa

3

Define gonadarche:

Changes dependent on steroid hormones from gonads

4

Define adrenarche:

Changes dependent on steroid hormones from adrenal gland

5

What age do girls hit peak growth velocity?
What age do boys hit peak growth velocity?

Girls = 12 yrs
Boys = 14yrs

6

What explains the height difference between men and women?

Boys are older and taller at point of take off.

Amount grown during growth sprout is actually the same in males and females

7

Complete the blank:

Adult men have _____ times more lean body mass than women.

Adult women have _____ times more body fat than men.

Adult men have 1.5 times more lean body mass than women.

Adult women have 2 times more body fat than men.

8

How long after menarche do females experience their first ovulation?

Ranges from months → 2 years

9

When is adult stature reached in females?

15

10

When is adult stature reached in males?

17

11

What do testicular androgens cause in males?

1) Development of genitalia
2) Body hair
3) Enlargement of larynx and laryngeal muscles

12

What do ovarian oestrogens cause in females?

Development of breast and genitalia

13

What do ovarian and adrenal androgens cause in females?

Pubic + auxillary hair

14

When do testes descend from abdomen?

7-8th month in utero

15

What hormones control descent of testes?

1) Mullerian inhibitory substance (MIS)
2) Testosterone

16

What directs the pull of testes?

Gubernaculum

17

When does spermatogenesis begin?

9 yrs

18

When is mature spermatozoa produced?

14-15yrs

19

How many ovaries are present at birth?

500,000

20

How many ovaries are present at puberty?

83,000

21

What are cryptorchid testes?

What is the treatment?

Testes that fail to descend at birth (3-4% of males)

0.8% fail to descend by 1 yr
0.3% fail to descend by 9yrs (commencement of spermatogenesis)

Treatment = surgery or Gonadotrophins/GnRH

22

How much cooler do the testes need to be compared to the body for spermatogenesis?

3.1 degrees

23

What are the daily patterns of hormone changes seen during puberty in females?

1) Fluctuations
2) ↑ amplitude (at night then always)

24

How often do hormonal pulses need to be for puberty to occur?

1-3 hours

25

What is the first endocrine change to occur in puberty?

Dehydroepianosterone

26

Where are the following released from in females?
Oestradiol
Oestrone
Androgens

Oestradiol: follicles in ovary
Oestrone: body fat
Androgens: adrenal gland

27

What is the source of oestrogens in males?

Steroli cells

28

What causes acne?

Androgens → ↑ sebum → clogged glands → acne

29

What is the effect of growth hormone during puberty?

1) Increases bone and tissue growth (along with androgens)
2) Roles in protein synthesis and glucose homeostasis

30

What is the effect of thyroid hormone during puberty?

↑ metabolic rate