8. IHD - diagnosis and treatment Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > 8. IHD - diagnosis and treatment > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8. IHD - diagnosis and treatment Deck (18):
1

Name 5 tests that could be used to diagnose stable angina.

1. exercise (treadmill/bicycle) ECG
2. dobutamine stress ECG
3. stress myocardial perfusion scan (measure radionuclide absorption)
4. pharmacological cardiac MRI stress test
5. PET scan (unusual)

2

What are the clinical examination findings of IHDs?

Stable angina:
- often normal

Acute coronary syndromes:
- often normal
- +/- clinical signs secondary to complications of cardiac tissue necrosis (NSTEMI/STEMI), e.g. acute heart failure, heart murmur, etc.

3

What ECG findings suggest the occurence of an MI in the past?

pathological Q waves

4

Describe the ECG findings for stable angina.

- Normal at rest.
- May show signs of previous MI (Q waves), atrial fibrillation or arrhythmias.

5

Describe the ECG findings for unstable angina.

1. ST segment depression
2. T wave flattening/inversion

6

Describe the ECG findings for NSTEMI.

1. ST segment depression
2. T wave flattening/inversion

7

Given that they have similar ECG findings, how can one differentiate between unstable angina and NSTEMI?

Troponin release unlikely in UA but occurs in NSTEMI due to myocyte necrosis.

8

Describe the ECG findings for STEMI.

1. ST segment elevation
2. T wave inversion
3. Pathological Q wave

9

Which ECG leads would be affected by lateral myocardial damage?

I, aVL, V5 and V6

10

Which ECG leads would be affected by inferior myocardial damage?

II, III and aVF

11

Which ECG leads would be affected by anterior myocardial damage?

V3 and V4

12

Which ECG leads would be affected by septal myocardial damage?

V1 and V2

13

Which pharmacological treatments are recommended to treat stable and unstable angina? Explain why.

Improve blood flow:
1. aspirin: anti-platelet
2. statins: reduce cholesterol by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase

Decrease BP:
3. beta-blocker: reduces cardiac effort
- decreases HR (more time between each beat for coronary filling, reduces O2 demand)
- decreases BP
4. ACE inhibitors: reduce BP (+ prognostic benefit in those with normal BP)
5. oral nitrates/GTN spray:
- decrease BP (peripheral vasodilation)
- coronary artery vasodilation
6. calcium channel blockers: decrease BP

14

Which revascularisation techniques are used to treat angina?

1. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
2. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)

15

What is PCI?

- Non-surgical widening of the coronary artery.
- Blood stream accessed through femoral or radial artery... balloon catheter dilates the artery from within (coronary angioplasty)... metallic stent placed in artery after dilation.

16

What is CABG?

Restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery via:
1. diverting the left internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery
2. use great saphenous vein from leg to attach the aorta to the obstructed artery

17

Describe thee management of MI.

1. oxygen
2. pain relief
3. GTN sublingually
4. aspirin
5. second antiplatelet

Revascularisation techniques:
- PCI
- CABG

18

Which troponins are released specifically in cardiac damage?

T and I