Flashcards in Addtional Material For Midterm Deck (75):
The spinal cord.......
Consists of nuclei and tracts.
Is continuous with the medulla.
Contains csf located in ventricles of the spinal cord.
Anterior white matter of the spinal column.....
Carries descending motor info.
Posterior white matter of the spinal column.....
Carries ascending sensory info
Ascending and descending fibers travel thru this pathway.
Ventricles are located......
In the midbrain area.
Ventricles are divided into....
Right/left lateral ventricles
What is the cerebral aqueduct?
It connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles and is located in the midbrain.h
What is a neurotube disorder?
Problems that emerge as the brain was forming, such as a malformed brain or insufficient in size.
What is a small brain called?
What is it called when you are born without a corpus callusum?
What is the choroid plexus?
A cell located in each ventricle that formulates csf (which is contained within the ventricles) and circulates there and extends to the spinal cord.
What is the ventricular system?
It is a pathway for the circulation of cerebral spinal fluid to the spinal cord.
Cerebral spinal fluid is....
Acellular, it contains no cells.
The brain produces.......of cerebral spinal fluid each day.
700mL......30 cc.........23 1/3 ounces
What is the purpose of cerebral spinal fluid?
It is present to lubricate, moisten, and protect the brain and spinal cord.
What is the chemical composition of cerebral spinal fluid?
Protein, potassium, sodium, calcium.
Each lateral ventricle consists of......
A central part (body) and three extensions. The lateral ventricle is c shaped.
What are the three extensions of the lateral ventricle?
Anterior horn=frontal lobe
Posterior horn=occipital lobe
Inferior horn=temporal lobe
What connects each lateral ventricle to the 3rd ventricle?
The foramen of monro.
Where is the 3rd ventricle located?
In the diencephalon. It is formed when two halves of the brain come together.
Where is the 4th ventricle located?
It is located by the metencephalon and the myelencephalon. It is diamond shaped and continuos with the central canal.
What is the central canal?
It is an opening at the top of the spinal cord to the bottom of the spinal cord. Cerebral spinal fluid circulates in the canal.
What are the meninges?
Thin tissue that protects the cortex/brain.
What are the three layers of the meninges?
Dura = outer layer
Pia=closest layer to the brain
What is subdural hematoma?
A buildup of a blood clot, blood accumulates beneath the dura mater. Usually from traumatic brain injury.
What is the function of the dura?
To protect the brain and spinal cord bc it lines the skull. Texture is similar to a bathing cap.
What is a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
A stroke that occurs underneath the arachnoid in the virtual space. It is serious and causes Brain injury or death bc of the pressure on the brains tissue.
What is the arachnoid?
It loosely covers the brain and spinal cord. The space between the dura and the arachnoid is a virtual space and fluids collect there.
The space beneath the arachnoid......
Contains cerebral spinal fluid to support, protect, and provide nutrition.
Is the deepest layer of the meninges and closely follows the contours of the gyri and sulci of the brain.
The brain receives blood supply from what two systems?
The carotid system and the vertebral basilar system.
Blood from the heart is.....
Why is blood to the brain extremely important?
All areas of the brain must be fed with blood or these areas will decrose/die. Brain function relies on oxygen and nutrients.
Blood is oxygenated....
Lungs, heart, brain.
This artery brings blood flow to the brain.....
Internal carotid artery.
This artery brings blood flow to the face and neck....
External carotid artery.
Blood circulation to the brain depends on......
An elaborate network of arteries.
What are arteries?
They carry oxygenated blood to the brain and the veins return the deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
Problems with expressive language....
Occurs in brocas area
Problems with receptive language.....
Occurs in wernickes area.
The carotid artery is located....
On the right and left side of the neck.
The common carotid artery ascends up and branches at....
The mandible into external and internal carotid arteries.
The internal artery ascends to the brain into the....
Lateral sulcus (sylvan fissure, which seperates the parietal and temporal lobes).
The internal carotid artery gives rise to these 3 branches....
Middle cerebral artery
Anterior cerebral artery
Posterior communicating artery
An anterior deficit.....
Global aphasia bc of loss of blood supply.
Interruption to blood flow in the left hemisphere of the brain....
Results in language, cognitive, receptive, expressive, or both disorders.
Which artery provides blood supply to a major section of the cortex/left hemisphere?
The middle cerebral artery.
The cortex also receives blood supply from...
The anterior cerebral artery and the posterior communicating artery.
The middle cerebral artery brings blood flow to....
The lateral and medial surface.
The posterior cerebral artery brings blood flow to....
The inferior medial aspect of the cortex.
What is collateral circulation?
A way of ensuring all is not lost. It is a provision of alternate blood flow via anastomosis to a brain region that has lost its blood supply.
What is edema?
A stroke is....
A cerebral vascular accident (cva).
Recovery of a stroke.......
Is contingent upon the severity of the stroke. Collateral circulation kicks in to help restore and nourish.
Is a weakening in an arterial wall that begins to expand (like a bubble in a garden hose). Due to extreme pressures (inc and dec blood pressure) it stretches and degrades the arterial wall until it cannot stand the pressure and it bursts. This causes a cerebral hemorrhage which is the rupturing of the aneurysm, which causes a stroke.
Causes an infraction.
Is an area of dead tissue that is necrose/dead due to a loss of blood flow and oxygen, specifically.
Infraction is caused by......
A thrombosis that formed within the blood vessel or artery, which restricted blood flow, sclerotic material buildup or an embolism.
A thrombosis is....
A blood clot which blocks blood flow.
What is sclerotic material?
Bad cholesterol build up which causes narrowing of the blood vessel/artery.
What is an embolism?
Blocking of a smaller artery by sclerotic material (embolus).
An embolic type stroke.....
Is the most common type of stroke. It is a result of a blood clot elsewhere in the body that travelled in the blood stream and got stuck in the brain.
An embolic event comes under the heading, "ischemic type stroke".
What is ischemia?
Interruption of bloodflow.
What is arterial fibrillation?
A very severe, erratic heart rate where the heart actually shakes.
An ischemic stroke......
Is a thrombosis or embolism.
What is deep vein thrombosis?
A blood clot caused by crossing your legs. Piece can break off and go to the brain.
A buildup of sclerotic plaque....
Interferes with cardiovascular efficiency...chest pains. Cardiac catherization is an insertion of a needle into artery of leg. A dye is injected, which goes up to heart to check for blockages due to sclerotic plaque.
Anterior and posterior bring bloodflow to...
Anterior brings flow to superior medial aspects of the cortex.
Posterior brings flow to inferior medial aspects of the cortex.
The vertebral system.....
Brings bloodflow to the posterior aspect of the brain.
Vertebral arteries ascend.....
Thru the vertebrae in the posterior spinal column. Each comes to meet thru the foramen magnum and form the basilar artery.
The common carotid artery comes of the....
Aorta and splits into external and internal carotid arteries.
The basilar artery splits.....
Into the PAC...posterior cerebral artery on the right and on the left.
The circle of Willis.....
Is formed by the anterior communicating artery connecting to the anterior cerebral artery on both sides. It is the ultimate example of collateral circulation.