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What are the 4 types of neuroglia cells in the central nervous system?

Astrocytes
oligodendroglia cells
Microglia
Ependymalglia

1

What are the types of neuroglia found in the peripheral nervous system?

Satellite cells & Schwann cells

2

What are the processes that interrupt the influence of a neurotransmitter?

1. Re-uptake
2. Neurotransmitter is destroyed

3

What are the structural classification of neurons?

Unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar.

4

What are the functional classification of neurons?

Sensory, motor, and interneurons.

5

What are the intentions of a neuron?

Voluntary (somatic) and involuntary (autonomic) neurons.

6

What are two types if neurotransmitters?

Amino acids and monoamine transmitters.

7

What are the amino acid transmitters?

Aspartate
Glutamate
Glycine
GABA

8

What are the monoamine transmitters?

Dopamine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Acetylcholine
Serotonin

9

Which NT's originate from the amino acid tyrosine?

Dopamine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

10

The Central nervous system consists of.....

The brain and spinal cord.

11

The peripheral nervous system consists of....

Spinal nerves and cranial nerves.

12

The two subsystems of the peripheral nervous system are....

Somatic system and autonomic system.

13

The two subsystems of the autonomic system are....

Sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system.

14

The brain consists of three parts.....

Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain

15

Another name for the forebrain is....

Prosencephalon

16

The two parts of the forebrain are....

The basal ganglia or telencephalon and the thalamus or diencephalon.

17

The midbrain is also called....

Mesencephalon

18

What are the parts of the hindbrain?

Metencephalon which is the pons and cerebellum
&
Myelencephalon which is the medulla.

19

Anterior/ventral spinal nerves promote.....

Motor activity

20

Posterior/dorsal spinal nerves promote....

Sensory activity

21

A hole or space in the brain where the spinal cord continues from the brain...

Foramen magnum

22

Spinal nerves innervate.....

Arms, trunk, legs, chest

23

Cranial nerves innervate.....

Head, face, neck, pharynx, heart, esophagus

24

What is the structural classification of neurons?

Unipolar, bipolar, multipolar

25

What is the functional classification of neurons?

Motor, sensory, interneuron

26

What is a interneuron?

A neuron associated with the spinal segment that has a multipolar structure but a very short axon or no axon at all. The interneuron remains within the cns and helps relay info quickly from one neuron to another, essentially it is there to make synapse occur even faster.

27

What is the classification of the intention of the neuron?

Voluntary and involuntary events.

28

What is a voluntary event?

A somatic neuron that is involved with voluntary events, events we have control over. Also known as volational activity (somatic behavior is a motor behavior I can control).

29

What is an involuntary event?

It's an autonomic neuron that receives info and brings it to various organs, muscles and glands. They help maintain a healthy environment and play a vital role in heart rate, respiratory rare, blood flow, and digestion.

30

What are neuralglia?

Neuroglia cells provide different roles of support in the cns. They regulate ionic concentration of extra cellular fluid within the brain and spinal cord but do not form synapses and are not capable of transporting impulses.

31

What are astrocytes?

They are the most common type of Neuroglia cells in the cns broken into two types 1. Protoplasmic astrocytes 2. Fibrous astrocytes.

32

What are protoplasmic astrocytes?

Found in grey matter and have numerous branching processes.

33

What are fibrous astrocytes

They are found in white matter and have thin, long unbranched processes.

34

What are oligodendroglia cells?

They are found within the cns and are responsible for forming myelin by wrapping their membrane around axons in a tight spiral. One oligodendroglia cell will myelinated many cells. Myelin plays a major role in motor function and movement bc it's an insulating material.

35

What are micro glia?

They are phagocytic and are scavengers. They eat bacteria and work in response to injury, disease, and infection in the cns.

36

What are ependymal glia cells?

They are Neuroglia cells that line the cavity of the brain and spinal cord.

37

What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?

Neural structures and tissues outside of the cns.

38

What are satellite cells?

They are cell bodies that are located within the spinal ganglia. They provide support for the spinal ganglia as well as nutrition for the cell bodies. (note: spinal nerve is part of pns and spinal cord is cns.

39

What are Schwann cells?

They form myelin in the pns.

40

What is re-uptake?

The nt goes back into the axon and is re absorbed by the axon. It migrates further up the axon.

41

What happens when the nt is destroyed?

An enzyme is introduced and it destroys the the nt.

42

Where is dopamine produced?

Substantia nigra.

43

What is a synaptic transfer system?

How one synapse influences another synapse and so on.

44

How are nt's grouped?

By their chemical molecular structure.

45

Do amino acids have an excitatory or inhibitory influence on the nervous system?

Inhibitory influence.

46

What are amino acids?

They are the simplest level of nt's that account for a vast majority of transmission signals )synapses in the brain.

47

What are monoamine transmitters?

Neurons absorb amino acids and synthesize monoamines using certain enzymes. They are more complicated in their chemical structure.

48

Striated muscles are....

Somatic

49

Smooth muscles are....

Autonomic.

50

What is acetylcholine?

A nt that signals muscles to contract. It was the first nt ever identified. Has a role in cognition and cognitive ability. It has an excitatory influence on cognitive activity !!!!!!

51

What is dopamine?

It has an inhibitory influence on the motor system & is designed to modulate muscle tone and control it so that there is not too much tone. Dopamine influences emotion and how a person reacts to emotional situations. It is found in the midbrain in clusters known as Substantia nigra.

52

What is norepinephrine ?

A nt involved with arousal, sleep, heart rate, respiration. It is found in clusters with the pons in the brainstem. Also found in the adrenal glands and serve the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

53

What is epinephrine?

They are a cluster of cells located within the medulla. They are found in the adrenal glands and serve the sympathetic division of the autonomic system. Also involved in regulation of blood pressure.

54

What is serotonin?

Are concentrated in clusters in the pons known as raphe nuclei. Plays a role in temp regulation, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep. Depletion of serotonin in autism. LSD inc the influence of serotonin resulting in excited activity and hallucinations. Low serotonin in depression.

55

The cns.....

Communicates with the body via the pns.

56

Gray matter....

Axons, dendrites, cell body

57

White matter....

Myelinated axons.

58

What is the somatic system?

Concerned with inervation of the skeletal muscles / striated muscles relevant to voluntary activity.

59

What is the autonomic system?

Inervates smooth muscles such as cardiac, glands, intestines and is concerned with events we do not have control over.

60

What is the sympathetic system?

Concerned with arousal and flight or fight response....heart rate inc, resp rate inc, pupils dilate, digestion ceases.

61

What is the parasympathetic system?

Conserves, regulates and surpresses the bodies resources, heart rate dec, pupils constrict....etc

62

The brain is composed of...

Nuclei......gray matter....cell bodies, unmyelinated axons, dendrites.

Tracts....white matter.....myelinated axons.

63

The forebrain consists of....

Telencephalon/basal ganglia and the diencephalon/thalamus.

64

The midbrain....

Is below the thalamus and is called the mesencephalon.

65

The hindbrain.....

Is below the midbrain and is made up of the metencephalon/cerebellum and pons and also the myelencephalon which is the medulla.