Alcohols and some of their Reactions Flashcards Preview

Chemistry 6 - Organic Chemistry > Alcohols and some of their Reactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Alcohols and some of their Reactions Deck (31)
1

what are alcohols

- a homologous series of compounds
- with the general formula CnH2n+1OH

2

what are alcohols usually the product of

halogenalkanes going through hydrolysis

3

what symbol is used to represent an alkyl group

R

4

using that symbol, what is the simplified formula of an alcohol

ROH

5

what is a primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol

-a primary alcohol has the OH group bonded to only one carbon atom or alkyl group
- a secondary has it bonded to two
- and a tertiary has it bonded to three

6

what would be the abbreviated formula for primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

- for primary it is ROH
- for secondary it is R2CHOH
- for tertiary it is R3COH

7

what are the three reactions of alcohols covered in this section

- combustion
- conversions to halogenalkanes
- dehydration of alkenes

8

what is the equation for the complete combustion of ethanol

C2H5OH + 3O2 = 2CO2 + 3H2O

9

what do the conversions of halogenalkanes invlove

replacing the hydroxyl group in an alcohol molecule with a halogen atom

10

what is the other name of this reaction that could be used, but what is the catch

- halogenation
- but adding a halogen to an alcohol doesnt work
- so different methods are needed for each halogen

11

what is the chlorination of an alcohol carried out using

- phosphorus V chloride
- a white solid also known as phosphorus pentachloride

12

why does the reaction between an alcohol and phosphorus V chloride not need heating

because the reaction is very vigorous and exothermic itself

13

what are the two inorganic products in this reaction

hydrochloric acid and phosphorus oxychloride

14

what is the structural formula equation for the reaction between propan-1-ol and phosphorus pentachloride

CH3-CH2-CH2OH + PCl5 = CH3CH2CH2Cl + POCl3 + HCl

15

how is the chlorination of tertiary alcohols done

the alcohol is mixed with concentrated hydrochloric acid, by shaking, at room temp

16

what is used to carry out bromination

- a mixture of potassium bromide
- and 50% concentrated sulfuric acid

17

what is done to carry out bromination

the reaction mixture is simply warmed with with the alcohol

18

what are the two inorganic products that could be produced and the product you want from either reaction

- you can get either potassium hydrogensulfate or potassium sulfate
- however the product you want from both reactions is hydrogen bromide

19

what is the hydrogen bromide then used to do

react with the alcohol

20

what would be the equation of the reaction between hydrogen bromide and butan-1-ol

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2OH + HBr = CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2Br + H2O

21

what is used to carry iodination out and how is it done

- a mixture of red phosphorus and iodine is used
- the reaction mixture including the alcohol is heated under a reflux

22

what do the two inorganic reagents from when they react and what is the equation for this

- phosphorus (III) iodide
- 2P + 3I2 = 2PI3

23

what would the equation for the reaction between phosphorus iodide and ethanol

3C2H5OH + PI3 = 3C2H5I + H3PO3

24

what is the name of the inorganic product produced in this reaction

phosphonic / phosphorous acid

25

how is the dehydration of alcohols carried out

by heating the alcohol with concentrated phosphoric acid

26

what happens during this reaction

- the OH group and a hydrogen atom from an adjacent carbon atom is removed
- causing a C=C bond to form between the carbon atoms

27

why is this reaction called dehydration

because water is the inorganic product

28

what are the equations for the dehydration of butan-2-ol, without having to include the phosphoric acid

- CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-CH3 = CH2=CH-CH2-CH3 + H2O
- CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-CH3 = CH3-CH=CH-CH3 + H2O

29

what is the difference between the two organic products

- the first one is but-1-ene
- the second one is but-2-ene

30

why are there actually three different types of organic products that could form from this reaction

- because but-2-ene has two different isomeric forms using the E-Z notation
- including the but-1-ene which only has itself, it makes three

31

what happens to the phosphoric acid in the reaction

the water mixes with it and dilutes it