Flashcards in Allotropes Of Carbon And Nanochemistry Deck (13):
Recognise the structures of diamond, graphite and buckminster fullerene
Diamond - giant molecule made of carbon atoms that are bonded to four other carbon atoms by covalent bonds
Graphite - giant molecules that exists in layers of carbon atoms bonded to three other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds
Buckminster fullerene - consists of 60 carbon atoms arranged in a sphere
List the physical properties of diamond
Lustrous, colourless and clear
Hard and has a high melting point
Insoluble in water
Does not conduct electricity
List the physical properties of graphite
Black, lustrous and opaque
Insoluble in water
What are nanotubes used for?
To reinforce graphite in tennis rackets because nanotubes are very strong
What are nanotubes used as?
Semiconductors in electrical circuits
Explain in terms of properties why graphite is used in pencil leads and lubricants
Because the layers are held together by weak intermolecular forces, allowing each layer to slide easily.
Explain in terms of properties why diamond is used in cutting tools and jewellery?
Because it very hard and has a high melting point and it is colourless, shiny and clear so used in jewellery.
Explain in terms of structure and bonding why diamond does not conduct electricity and is hard and has a high melting point?
Because it does not have any free electrons also has a large number of covalent bonds so has a high melting point and needs lots of energy to break these bonds.
Explain why fullerenes can be used in new drug delivery systems?
Because a molecule of the drug can be placed inside the nanotube cage which keeps the drug 'wrapped up' until it reaches the site where it's required. So a dose that might might be damaging to other parts of the body can be delivered safely.
Explain how the structure if nanotubes enables them to be used as catalysts?
By attaching catalyst material to a nanotube, a massive surface area can be achieved, making the catalyst very efficient.
Explain in terms of structure and boiling why graphite conducts electricity, is slippery and has a high melting point?
Because it has free electrons, the layers are held together by weak intermolecular forces, allowing each layer to slide easily and because it has a giant structure it has many strong covalent bonds to break and lots of energy is needed to do this.
Explain why diamond and graphite have a giant molecular structure
Because many trillions of atoms are joined together in a network by covalent bonds