Batch Or Continuous? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Batch Or Continuous? Deck (10):

List the factors that affect the cost of making and developing a pharmaceutical drug

Research and testing
Labour costs
Energy costs
Raw marerials
Time taken for development


Explain why pharmaceutical drugs need to be thoroughly tested before they can be licensed for use

Because they need to be tested in a laboratory to check that they are non toxic, and later they are trialled using human volunteers. At this point any potential side effects should show themselves. Most substances do not pass all the tests and trials, so drug development is expensive and takes a long time.


What can the raw materials for pharmaceuticals be made from?

Either made synthetically or extracted from plants


Explain why it is important to manufacture pharmaceutical drugs to be as pure as possible

Because it reduces the chances of unnecessary side-effects and helps to ensure an accurate does in each tablet or capsule


Describe how melting point, boiling point and thin layer chromatography can be used to establish the purity of a compound

Melting point:
If pure - single, sharp temperature
If impure - metals over a range of temperatures
Boiling point:
If pure - single, sharp temperature
If impure - boils over a range of temperatures
If pure - single dot on paper
If impure - two or more dots on paper


Explain why batch processes are often used for the production of pharmaceutical drugs but continuous processes are used to produce chemicals such as ammonia

Because ammonia is needed in large amounts so is made continuously. But pharmaceuticals are needed in small amounts or only is needed ( a speciality chemical) is usually made in batch.


Describe how chemicals are extracted from plant sources

- Crushing - the plant material is crushed using a mortar and pestle
- dissolving - a suitable solvent is added to dissolve the material. This could be boiled to improve the extraction
- chromatography- a concentrated solution of the material is spotted onto chromatography paper and allowed to separate


Explain the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes

- low cost of factory equipment
- low rate of production
- often shut down times
- many people needed
- relatively difficult to handle
- high cost of factory equipment
- high rate of production
- rare shut down times
- few people needed
- relatively easy to handle


Explain why it is often expensive to make and develop new pharmaceutical drugs

- staff costs are hgih
- materials could be rare or may require complex methods to extract the raw materials
- medicines must be as pure as possible to avoid side effects caused by impurities
- medicines are made in small quantities and it is not possible to totally automate the manufacturing process


Describe the difference between a batch and a continuous process

Batch - reactants are put into a reactor, the reaction happens then the product is removed. Medicines and pharmaceutical drugs are often made. The process makes a product on demand, make a product on a small scale, can be used to make a variety of products.

Continuous - reactants are continually fed into a large reactor and the product is continually being produced at the same time. They operate all the time and run automatically, make a product on a large scale and are dedicated to just one product.