Basal nuclei Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basal nuclei Deck (36):
1

C-shaped mass closely related to the lateral ventricles and lies lateral to the thalamus

Caudate nucleus

2

Wedge shaped part buried deep in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere

Lentiform nucleus

3

Inner and lighter part of the lentiform nucleus
Has high concentration of myelinated nerve fibers

Globes pallidus

4

Larger, darker and outer part of the lentiform nucleus which is continuous with the caudate nucleus

Putamen

5

Situated in the temporal lobe close to the uncus
Considered as part of the limbic system
Can influence the body's response to environmental changes

Amygdaloid nucleus

6

Thin sheet of gray matter

Claustrum

7

Caudate nucleus + lentiform nucleus

Corpus striatum

8

Globus pallidus + Putamen

Lentiform nucleus

9

Caudate nucleus + Putamen

Neostratium

10

Most rostral part of the brain which is formed by caudate nucleus and lentiform nuclei

Telencephalon

11

Part of the midbrain
Neurons from here are dopaminergic and inhibitory
Has many connections to corpus striatum

Substantial nigra

12

Part of the diencephalon
Neurons here are glutaminergic and excitatory

Subthalamic nuclei

13

Give the functions of the basal nuclei

1. Regulates voluntary movements and learning motor skills
2. Controls muscular movements by influencing the cerebral cortex
3. Controls muscle tone
4. Cognitive functions

14

Main sites for receiving input to the basal nuclei

Caudate nucleus and putamen

15

Main site from which output leaves the basal nuclei

Globes pallidus

16

Afferent fiber of the corpus striatum
Glutamate
Excitatory
Projects from cerebral cortex
Leads to Putamen and caudate nucleus

Corticostriate fibers

17

Inhibitory afferent fibers

Nigrostriate and brainstem striatal fibers

18

Projects from the caudate nucleus and Putamen

Efferent fibers

19

Efferent fiber of the corpus striatum
GABA
Projects to globes pallidus

Striatopallidal fibers

20

Efferent fibers of corpus striatum
GABA and Acetylcholine Substance P
Projects to substantia nigra

Striatonigral fibers

21

Excitatory pathway
Increase in motor activity
Facilitates purposeful behavior and ongoing movement

Direct pathway

22

Inhibitory pathway
Via the subthalamic nucleus
Inhibits unwanted movements

Indirect pathway

23

Fan shaped collection of nerve fibers
Comprised of afferent and efferent fibers of the cortex going to the brainstem
Becomes the internal capsule once it passes to the basal nuclei

Corona radiate

24

Excessive and abnormal body movements

Hyperkinetic disorders

25

Lack or slowness of movement

Hypokinetic disorders

26

Involuntary body movement caused by basal nuclei lesions

Dyskinesia

27

Decreased body movement caused by basal nuclei lesions

Hypokinesia

28

Type of dyskinesia
Slow, sinuous, writhing movement
Caused by the degeneration of the globus pallidus

Athetosis

29

Violent, random flinging of the limb
Involves only one side of the body
Caused by a lesion in the subthalamic nucleus

Ballism/hemiballismus

30

Quick, jerky, irregular, non-repetitive movement

Chorea

31

Shaking movement of the head and extremities

Tremors

32

Tremor of the hand when the wrist is extended

Asterixis

33

Sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures

Dystonia

34

Caused by degeneration of caudate nucleus and putamen
Dopamine-secreting neurons of substantia nigra becomes overactive, causing the nigrastriatal pathway to inhibit the caudate-Putamen complex

Huntington's disease

35

Progressive disease characterized by the degeneration of the neurons of the substantia nigra
Results in the reduction of dopamine

Parkinson's disease

36

Collection of gray matter situated deep within hemisphere
Has an important role in posture and voluntary movement
Has no direct input or output connects with spinal cord
Modifies motor movements by influencing the lower motor neurons

Basal nuclei