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Flashcards in Organization of the Nervous System Deck (80):
1

Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Integration and correlation center of nervous information

Central Nervous System

2

Consists of the cranial and spinal nerves and their associated ganglia
Conducts info to and from the central nervous system

Peripheral Nervous System

3

Functional units of the nervous tissue
Highly specialized cells that exhibit irritability and conductivity

Neurons

4

Also known as nerve cell body
Contains cytoplasm with a nucleus embedded on it

Perikaryon

5

Elongated processes that receive stimuli from the environment
Diameter tapers as they extend from the cell body
Branch profusely

Dendrites

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Small projections found in the finer branches of the dendrites

Dendritic spines

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Single, tubular process that conducts impulses away from the body

Axon

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More than two processes arising from perikaryon
Neurons of the brain and spinal cord

Multipolar

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Possess an elongated cell body where a process emerge at each end
Found in retina and vestibular region

Bipolar

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Has a single process
Found in spinal ganglia, cranial ganglia and posterior root ganglion

Unipolar

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With many dendrites but no true axon
Regulates electrical changes of adjacent neuron
Do not produce actin potentials

Anaxonic

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Long axon that may be 1m or more in length
Form the long fiber tracts of the brain and spinal cord
Ex. Pyramidal cell, Purkinje cell, motor cells

Golgi Type I Neurons

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Have a short axon
Star-shaped appearance
Inhibitory
Numerous in cerebral and cerebellum complex

Golgi Type II Neurons

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Also called afferent neurons
Receive input from peripheral structures
Transmit sensory info to CNS

Sensory Neurons

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Efferent neurons
Transmit impulses from CNS to effector organs

Motor Neurons

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Association Neurons
Connect sensory to motor neurons
90% of neurons in CNS

Interneurons

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Non-neuronal specialized cels which support the nerve cells of the NS
Non-transmitting

Glial cells

18

A kind of CNS neuroglia
Small cell bodies with branching processes that extend in all directions
Function: formation of blood-brain barrier, structural support

Astrocytes

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Found mainly in the white matter where their processes pass between the nerve fibers

Fibrous astrocytes

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Found mainly in the gray matter where their processes pass between the nerve cell bodies

Protoplasmic astrocytes

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A kind of CNS Neuroglia
Possess cell bodies and few delicate processes
No filaments in their cytoplasm
Found in rows along myelinated nerve fibers
Surround nerve cell bodies
Responsible for the formation of the myelin sheath

Oligodendrocytes

22

Smallest of the CNS neuroglia lol cells
Derived from macrophages
Function: engulfing debris resulting from injury or disease

Microglia

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A kind of CNS neuroglia
Line the cavities of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord
Assists in the circulation of CSF by movement of the cilia

Ependymal cells
3 groups: ependymocytes, tanycytes, choroid all epithelial cells

24

A kind of PNS Neuroglia
aka capsular cells
Surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia
Regulate nutrients and transmitter levels

Satellite cells

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A kind of PNS neuroglia
Only wraps one axon
Surround axons in PNS
Provide insulation for myelin agin

Schwann cells

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Point of contact between a neuron and another cell
Site of transmission of nerve impulses

Synapse

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Involves gap junctions that extend from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron
Bidirectional

Electrical synapse

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Involves neurotransmitters

Chemical synapse

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Neuron can synapse with the following

Another neuron
Muscle(neuromuscular synapse)
Gland(neuroglandular synapse)

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Group of nerve cell bodies in the CNS

Nucleus

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Collection of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS

Ganglia

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Consists of nerve cells embedded in neuroglia

Gray matter

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Composed of nerve fibers embedded in neuroglia
Color is due to lipid material in the myelin sheaths

White matter

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Nerve bundle

Fasciculus

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Large, flattened region of white matter

Capsule

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Stout bundle of white matter that joins two major parts of the brain

Peduncle

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Region of the CNS largely occupied by a population of axons that all have the same origin and destination

Tract

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White matter found interiorly
Gray matter surrounds it

Brain

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Gray matter found interiorly
White matter surrounds it

Spinal cord

40

Consists of the brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System

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Encloses the brain

Cranium

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Consists of diencephalon and the cerebrum

Forebrain

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Almost completely hidden from the surface of the brain
Consists of dorsal thalamus and ventral hypothalamus

Diencephalon

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Largest part of the brain
Composed of two cerebral hemispheres

Cerebrum

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Mass of white matter connecting the two cerebral hemispheres

Corpus callosum

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Narrow part of the brain that connects the forebrain to the hindbrain

Midbrain

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Consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum

Hindbrain

48

Conical in shape
Connects the pons superiorly to the spinal cord

Medulla oblongata

49

Situated on the anterior surface of the cerebellum, inferior to the midbrain and superior to the medulla oblongata

Pons

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Lies within the posterior cranial fossa
Consists of two laterally placed hemispheres

Cerebellum

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The median portion connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebellum

Vermis

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Collective term for the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain

Brain stem

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Outermost sheath of the meninges
Thick, dense and strong inelastic fibrous membrane

Dura mater

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Layer which contains the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CSF

Arachnoid mater

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Innermost of the meninges but incomplete membrane
Thin delicate vascular membrane consisting of minute plexus of blood vessels

Pia mater

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Terminal portion of the spinal cord

Conus medullaris

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Bundle of spinal nerves in the lumbar area of the spinal cord

Cauda equina

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Extension of the pia mater which descends into the coccyx

Filum terminals

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1st cranial nerve associated with smell

Olfactory

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2nd cranial nerve associated with vision

Optic

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3rd cranial nerve associated with the eyelid and eyeball movement

Oculomotor

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4th cranial nerve innervating the superior oblique, turns eyes downward and laterally

Trochlear

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5th cranial nerve associated with mastication and facial sensation

Trigeminal

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6th cranial nerve that turns the eye laterally

Abducens

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7th cranial nerve the controls most facial expressions, secretion of tears and saliva taste

Facial

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8th cranial nerve associated with hearing, equilibrium and sensation

Vestibulocochlear

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9th cranial nerve associated with taste, senses, carotid blood pressure

Glossopharyngeal

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10th cranial nerve that senses aortic blood pressure, slows heart rate and stimulates digestive organs

Vagus

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11th cranial nerve that controls the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid and swallowing movements

Accessory

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12th cranial nerve that controls tongue movements

Hypoglossal

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Sensory cranial nerves

1,2,8
Olfactory, optic and vestibulocochlear

72

Motor cranial nerves

3,4,6,11,12
Oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, accessory, hypoglossal

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Both sensory and motor cranial nerves

5,7,9,10
Trigeminal, facial, Glossopharyngeal, vagus

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Consists of efferent fibers that carry nerve impulses away from the CNS

Anterior root

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Afferent fibers that carry nerve impulses to the CNS

Posterior root

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Swelling on the posterior root where the cell bodies of the spinal nerves are situated

Posterior root ganglion

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Rest and digest activation

Parasympathetic / Craniosacral division

78

Fight or flight response

Sympathetic / Thoracolumbar division

79

E situations

Exercise
emergency
excitement
embarrassment

80

Study of the anatomy and organization of nervous systems

Neuroanatomy