What are the two kingdoms of bacteria?
Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
Round cell shape
Rod cell shape
Spiral cell shape
Name the characteristics of bacteria. (6)
Abundant, diverse, single-celled, organelles not surrounded by membranes, single chromosome=DNA, reproduce asexually by binary fission.
How big are bacteria?
10 times smaller than a typical eukaryotic cell.
What is the typical structure of bacteria? (5)
a cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA in a single strand that forms a ring, flagella (sometimes).
How are bacteria classified? (4)
By shape, reaction to being stained, nutrition, respiration.
What are the different versions of cocci?
Monococci (live on their own), diplococci (pairs), streptococci (linear chains), staphylococci (grape-like structure).
What are the different versions of bacilli?
Monobacilli (single), diplobacilli (paired), streptobacilli (chained).
What are the different ways spiral can exist?
They can only exist as single cells.
What is a gram stain test?
The classification of bacteria based on the reaction to a dye (crystal violet iodine).
What does it mean if a cell keeps the dye.
It is gram positive--they are generally more common and not as harmful or pathogenic.
What does it mean if a cell appears light pink?
It is gram negative--less common and more harmful and pathogenic.
Why do some cells retain the dye?
They have a different cell wall structure. Gram positives don't have an outer membrane. Gram negatives do.
How do most eubacteria get their energy?
By breaking down organic molecules in their environment. Doing this makes them heterotrophs.
What does it mean to be an autotroph?
They make their own organic compounds. Only some eubacteria are autotrophs.
What are the two types of autotrophs?
Photoautotrophs (use sunlight as their energy source) and Chemoautotrophs (use energy from chemical reactions as their energy source).
What is cyanobacteria?
A IMPORTANT group of blue-green bacteria in the group of photoautotrophs. They are photosynthetic and can use sunlight to make their own food, but lack chloroplasts.
Where are cyanobacteria commonly found?
Freshwater lakes and ponds. They can also be found in salt water, soil, snow, volcanoes, and rocks.
What is a bloom?
A sudden increase in population which indicates that the water is polluted with nitrates and phosphates from agricultural runoff.
How are lichens formed?
When species of cyanobacteria live symbiotically with fungi.
Where do heterotroph bacteria live?
What are the three types of heterotrophs?
Chemoheterotrophs (most), parasite (absorb nutrients from other species), and saprobes (decompose dead matter).
Where does cellular respiration occur in bacteria?
Within the inner folds of the membrane of the bacteria.
What is it called: bacteria that need oxygen to live?
Aerobes or obligate aerobes if oxygen is absolutely necessary for survival.
What is it called: bacteria that do not need oxygen to live?
Anaerobes or obligate anaerobes if the presence of oxygen kills bacteria.
How do all bacteria reproduce?
Asexually by binary fission.
Explain binary fission.
1. Replicate genetic material. 2. Divides into 2 equal-sized daughter cells.
How often can bacteria divide?
Every 15-20 minutes.