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Flashcards in Brainstem Deck (27):
1

describe the organization of Motor nuclei in the brainstem

- Cranial nerve nuclei (GSE) are located in the MIDLINE of brainstem levels

- Cranial nerve nuclei III, IV, VI and XII

2

describe the organization of Mixed sensory nuclei

- Cranial nuclei (SVA, GVA, SVE, GVE) are INTERMEDIATE columns throughout the PONS and MEDULLA of the brainstem

- Cranial nerve nuclei = V, VII, IX, X

3

describe the organization of Sensory nuclei in brainstem

- Cranial nerve VIII is the only PURE SENSORY nucleus and nerve (SSA) in brainstem

--> located DORSOLATERALLY in caudal pons and rostral medulla

- Cranial nerve V (GSA) is an EXCEPTION to pure sensory cranial nerve as it is mixed nerve

--> GSA nuclei (spinal, principal and mesencephalic nuclei) are located MOST LATERALLY in brainstem

4

Describe the Cranial nerve, modality and location

- Olfactory - sensory (some) - cerebrum

- Optic = sensory (say) = diencephalon

- Oculomotor = motor (money) = midbrain

- Trochlear = motor (matters) = midbrain

- Trigeminal = both (but) = pons

- Abducens = motor (my) = pons

- Facial = both (brother) = pons

- vestibulocochlear = sensory (says) = pons, medulla

- Glossopharyngeal = both (big) = medulla

- Vagus = both (boobs) = medulla

- accessory = motor (matter) = medulla, spinal cord

- Hypoglassal = motor (most) = medulla

5

define sulcus limitans

- embryologic line that separates Motor (GSE, GVE, SVE) and Sensory (SVA, GVA, SSA, GSA)

- landmark inside ventricular system then the tegmentum of the brainstem

- divides sensory nuclei, dorsally located, from motor nuclei ventrally located

6

embyology of spinal cord

Alar plate (dorsal) gives rise to sensory function

--> dorsal horns

Basal plate (ventral) gives rise to motor function

--> ventral horns

7

describe the embrylogy of the brainstem in relation to sensory/motor nuclei

- in the brainstem the alar plate is dorsolaterally

--> gives rise to somatic afferet, special visceral afferent, general visceral afferent nuclei (laterally to medial)

- in brainstem the basal plate is more medial along 4th ventricle

--> gives rise to general visceral efferent, special visceral efferent (Ix, X, XI) and somatic efferent (XII) (laterally to medial)

8

describe the medial zone of the closed caudal medulla

- Corticospinal tract and decussation

- Internal arcuate fibers forming medial lemniscus

- ventral trigeminothalamic tract = second order neurons of FACE (pain and temp pathway)

- Motor cranial nerve = HYPOGLOSSAL NUCLEUS (GSE)

9

Describe dorsal zone of closed caudal medulla

- Posterior column-medial lemniscus system

--> gracile fasciculus/gracile nucleus

--> cuneat fasciculus/cuneate nucleus

10

Describe the lateral zone of the closed caudal medulla

- SPinothalamic (ALS) tract

- Spinal trigeminal nucelus (GSA)

- Spinal trigeminal tract

11

describe the intermediate zone of the closed caudal medulla

- Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (GVE) = preganglionic PARASYMPATHETICS to Visceral

- Nucleus ambiguus (SVE) = motor to muscle of laynx and pharynx (CN IX, X, XI)

- Nucleus Solitarius = SVA, GVA = taste and visceral sensation (CN IX and X)

12

describe the medial zone of open rostral medulla

- corticospinal tract

- corticonuclear tract

- medial lemniscus and ventral trigeminothalamic tract

- medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

- Hypoglossal nucleus (GSE)

13

describe the dorsolateral zone of the open rostral medulla

--> due to 4th ventricle

- spinothalamic tract

- spinal trigeminal nucleus (CN V; GSA) = pain/temp orofacial region

- spinal trigeminal tract

- Vestiular and Cochlear nuclei (SSA) = seen in MOST ROSTRAL MEDULLA and CAUDAL PONS

14

describe the intermediate zone of the open rostral medulla

- Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (GVE) = parasympathetics to viscera

- inferior salivatory nucleus (GVE) = parasympathetics to parotid gland (CN IX)

- nucleus ambiguus (SVE) = motor to muscles of larynx and pharaynx (CN IX, X)

- Nucleus solitarius = SVA, GVA = taste and visceral sensation (CN IX, X)

15

describe the medial zone of the pons

- corticospinal tract

- corticonuclear tract

- medial lemniscus with ventral trigeminothalamic tracts

- BASIS PONTIS ( pontine nuclei)

- Abducens nuclei

- medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

16

describe the dosolateral zone of the pons

- spinothalamic tract

- spinal trigeminal nucleus

- spinal trigeminal tract

- Vestibular and choclear nulcei (CAUDAL PONS)

17

describe intermediate zone of the pons

- Facial nucleus (SVE) = genu of nerve forms facial colliculus

- Principal (MAIN) sensory nucleus of CN V (GSA) = discriminitive touch orofacial region

- Mesencephalic nucleus of CN V (GSA) = rostral pons and caudal midbrian = proprioceptive nucleus for muscles of the head

- Motor nucleus of CN V (SVE) = motor fibers to muscles of mastication

- Superior salivatory nucleus (GVE) = parasympathetics to sublingual, submandibular, palatine glands (CN VII)

- nucleus solitarius (SVA) = taste, CN VII

18

describe the medial zone of the midbrain

- corticospinal tract

- corticobulbar tract

- substantia nigra

- red nucleus

- decussation of SCP

- TROCHLEAR nucleus (GSE)

- Oculomotor nuclear compelx (GSE and GVE) - Edinger-westphal nucleus

- medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

19

describe the dorsal zone of the midbrain

- periqueductal gray (PAG)

- Tectum-sensory relay

--> superior colliculi - vision

--> inferior colliculi - auditory

20

describe the lateral zone of midbrain

- spinothalamic tract

- medial lemniscus

21

describe the intermediate zone of the midbrain

- Mesencephalic nulceus of CN V (GSA)

--> rostral pons enters the caudal midbrain, hence the name mesencephalic (pertaining to midbrain)

--> proprioceptive nucleus for muscles of the head

22

define the fucntion of reticular formation

- regulation of level of consciousness, cortical alertness

- control of somatic motor movements

- regulation of visceral motor or autonomic functions

- contral of sensory information

23

describe the median zone of the medulla and pons for reticular foramtion

- associated with sleep

- modulate or suppress the transmission of pain

24

describe teh function of the paramedian zone in the medulla and pons of the reticular formation

- feedback system assocaited with intricate patterns of movements

25

describe the function of the medial zone of medulla and pons of the reticular formation

- connection to thalamus and hypothalamus to control arousal and the ANS

- motor control of axial and proximal limb musculature

- modulation of transmission of sensory inforamtion

26

describe the lateral zone of the medulla and pons of the reticular formation

- sensory or afferent zone

- relays this info to medial zone of reticular formation

27

describe the median zone of the midbrain of the reticular formation

- assocaited with sleep

- modulate or suppress the transmission of pain