Flashcards in Breast Cancer Deck (21):
What is the most common type?
Which type has a higher incidence of multicentric tumours?
What are the 3 most common sites of mets from breast cancer?
bone, lung & liver
what is the Nottingham prognostic index?
used to determine prognosis following surgery for breast cancer, based on:
1. tumour size
3. lymph node involvement
How does oestrogen exposure affect breast cancer risk?
Higher exposure = greater risk
Late childbearing, nulliparity, early menarche, late menopause, obesity
What two medications can increase risk?
BRCA1 and BRCA2
BRCA1: increased susceptibility to breast & ovarian cancer
BRCA2: early-onset breast cancer & male breast cancer
What is the breast screening programme?
Regular mammography offered to all women age 50-70 every 3 years
What is the triple assessment?
1. Full history & exam
2. Bilateral mammography
3. USS & biopsy
What else should be included in an USS?
Axillae & LN biopsy (if required)
How is cytological diagnosis confirmed?
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or biopsy
a) ER/ PR expression
a) better prognosis
b) worse prognosis
Which breast cancers are highly chemo-sensitive?
HER2 positive & triple negative
What does ER status mean?
Oestrogen receptor status (80% of breast
Means that cancer cells (like normal breast cells) receive signals from oestrogen that promote growth
What is trastuzumab AKA?
What is important to monitor in a patient on herceptin?
Cardiac monitoring - can have cardiac SEs
Who is tamoxifen given to?
ER/ PR positive
What is a complication of tamoxifen?
How long is it usually given for?
Increased risk of thrombosis & endometrial carcinoma
What can be given as an alternative to tamoxifen?
What is a SE?
Aromatase inhibitor (e.g. anastrazole)
Is radiotherapy commonly used?
Yes - all patients require adjuvant radiotherapy to reduce chance of local recurrence