Breast Cancer Flashcards Preview

Oncology > Breast Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breast Cancer Deck (21):
1

What is the most common type?

DCIS

2

Which type has a higher incidence of multicentric tumours?

Lobular carcinoma

3

What are the 3 most common sites of mets from breast cancer?

bone, lung & liver

4

what is the Nottingham prognostic index?

used to determine prognosis following surgery for breast cancer, based on:
1. tumour size
2. grade
3. lymph node involvement

5

How does oestrogen exposure affect breast cancer risk?
Examples

Higher exposure = greater risk
Late childbearing, nulliparity, early menarche, late menopause, obesity

6

What two medications can increase risk?

OCP
HRT

7

BRCA1 and BRCA2

BRCA1: increased susceptibility to breast & ovarian cancer
BRCA2: early-onset breast cancer & male breast cancer

8

What is the breast screening programme?

Regular mammography offered to all women age 50-70 every 3 years

9

What is the triple assessment?

1. Full history & exam
2. Bilateral mammography
3. USS & biopsy

10

What else should be included in an USS?

Axillae & LN biopsy (if required)

11

How is cytological diagnosis confirmed?

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or biopsy

12

Prognosis for
a) ER/ PR expression
b) HER2

a) better prognosis
b) worse prognosis

13

Which breast cancers are highly chemo-sensitive?

HER2 positive & triple negative

14

What does ER status mean?
How common?

Oestrogen receptor status (80% of breast
cancers +)
Means that cancer cells (like normal breast cells) receive signals from oestrogen that promote growth

15

What is trastuzumab AKA?

Herceptin

16

What is important to monitor in a patient on herceptin?

Cardiac monitoring - can have cardiac SEs

17

Who is tamoxifen given to?

Pre-menopausal women
ER/ PR positive

18

What is a complication of tamoxifen?
How long is it usually given for?

Increased risk of thrombosis & endometrial carcinoma
5 years

19

What can be given as an alternative to tamoxifen?
What is a SE?

Aromatase inhibitor (e.g. anastrazole)
SE: osteoporosis

20

Is radiotherapy commonly used?

Yes - all patients require adjuvant radiotherapy to reduce chance of local recurrence

21

What are 4 common mets of breast cancer?

Bone, liver, lung & brain